Attention Deficit Disorder:

Information & Interventions for Effective Teaching

 

Instructor Name:          Dr. A.N. (Bob) Pillay

Facilitator:                    Mick R. Jackson MS/ED

Phone:                          509-891-7219

Office Hours:                8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday – Friday

Email:                          mick@virtualeduc.com

Address:                       Virtual Education Software

                                    16201 E Indiana Ave, Suite 1450

                                    Spokane, WA 99216

Technical Support:        support@virtualeduc.com

 

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Introduction

Welcome to Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), an interactive distance learning course designed to help you achieve a better understanding of ADD and provide intervention strategies to facilitate positive student change. Attention Deficit Disorder provides information on the history of the disorder, accepted methods to assess and identify students with the disorder, and various treatment methods that are currently being used to treat the disorder. The course helps you through the referral process when you feel a student needs services beyond what you are capable of or comfortable providing in your classroom environment. This course also lists resources for both teachers and parents who would like more help or information about ADD.       

 

This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer. Technical support information can be found in the Help section of your course. While the title does not specifically reflect coverage of Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the information in this course does cover the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders definition of both ADD and ADHD. The course is designed to provide information and remediation strategies for the disorder with and without hyperactivity.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Course Materials (Online)

Title:                Attention Deficit Disorder: Information & Interventions for Effective Teaching  

Author:            Nancy Marchand-Martella, Ph.D., Ronald C. Martella, Ph.D., Charalambos Cleanhous, Ph.D.

Publisher:         Virtual Education Software, inc. 1999, Revised 2001, Revised 2010, Revised 2013

Instructor:        Dr. A.N. (Bob) Pillay

Facilitator:        Mick R. Jackson MS/ED

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Academic Integrity Statement

The structure and format of most distance-learning courses presume a high level of personal and academic integrity in completion and submission of coursework. Individuals enrolled in a distance-learning course are expected to adhere to the following standards of academic conduct.

 

Academic Work

Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed, in part or in whole, to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.

 

Aiding Honesty in Others

The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.

 

 

Violations of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Level of Application

This course is designed to be an informational course with application to work or work-related settings. The intervention strategies are designed to be used in the remediation of students with attention deficit ranging in age from approximately 5 years to early adolescence. Some alterations may be needed if you are working with younger children.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Course Objectives

·        To define the characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder for better understanding of the disorder

·        To provide a history of the disorder to increase knowledge and understanding

·        To increase ability to identify and assess students possibly having the disorder

·        To increase the number of intervention strategies available to remediate academic problems and distracting or self-defeating behaviors

·        To provide information on various treatment methods used in the treatment of this disorder

·        To increase knowledge of the referral process for parents and/or professionals in education

·        To provide resources for teachers and parents to help them and the students with whom they work

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Course Description

The course Attention Deficit Disorder has been divided into four chapters. This course provides information on such issues as definition, history, treatment and even some referral sources that may be accessed. The subject areas are sequential and, although it is not required, they should be completed in the order in which they are presented in the program. After completing these four sections you should have the basic framework for understanding what causes the disorder. This may also help you understand why students with ADD have behavior problems in the classroom and other school settings.

 

The first and second chapters are “History & Prevalence” and “Assessment & Special Education”; they give a clear picture of how to assess the disorder. Much of this information may be a review, but this chapter has been added so that upon completion of this chapter you will be familiar with the laws and criteria governing special education students with ADD. Although this information may be somewhat dry, it is critical information for a classroom teacher working with students with ADD. Furthermore, the information in this section is complete and thorough, but there is much additional information published about Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. We recommend that you complete readings and research outside the course materials and information to gain a fuller understanding of the disorder and its treatment. To cover all areas and issues affecting students with ADD and their behavior would not be possible in one university course. However, this introduction section and subsequent sections should give you a firm understanding of the disorder and effective tools for facilitating positive changes with these students.

 

The third chapter of the Attention Deficit Disorder course is titled “Resources & Approaches.” This section discusses the occurrences of the disorder and some of the possible causes. The information in this chapter serves to increase your background knowledge of ADD and ADHD, so that an effective intervention plan can be developed to help the student with both academic and behavioral difficulties. Gaining an understanding of the possible cause of the disorder will also help in understanding a child and his/her behavioral problems, as well as his/her academic needs.

 

Chapter four is “Curriculum Modifications & Interventions.”  In this chapter you will be given information on various evaluation materials used to assess areas of academic weakness, the primary one being functional behavior assessment. This chapter describes different available interventions that can be used with these students in different subject areas. You will also be taught the different aspects of reinforcement techniques most commonly used.

 

These four chapters should give you a firm understanding of ADD, its diagnosis, possible causes, assessment, and the laws surrounding the disorder.

 

After you complete each chapter of the course, an examination will be used to evaluate your knowledge and ability to apply what you’ve learned.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

 

Student Expectations  

As a student you will be expected to:

·        Complete all information sections covering Attention Deficit Disorder, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.

·        Complete all section examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.

·        Complete a review of any section on which your examination score was below 70%.

·        Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 70% (maximum of three attempts). *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.

·        Complete all course journal article and essay writing assignments with the minimum word count shown for each writing assignment.

·        Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Course Overview

Chapter 1: History & Prevalence

This chapter helps teachers, school officials, community agencies, and parents understand the procedures for diagnosing ADHD. It will also explain some of the common characteristics of children with ADHD children.  This chapter will also discuss prevalence rates among cultures, genders, age groups, and other demographic groups. It will explore and explain possible causes of ADHD.

 

Chapter 2:  Assessment & Special Education

This chapter discusses the various assessment tools and procedures that can be used in the assessment of both academic and behavioral deficits in the child with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. This chapter will also provide information on the federal laws that govern both special education in general and the specific laws and codes that apply to the child with ADHD in particular.

 

Chapter 3: Resources & Approaches

This chapter will cover both the scientific approaches to understanding ADHD and the controversial treatments that currently are being used to treat the disorder. The explanation will focus on research that has shown promise in the control of ADD and ADHD. This chapter will also focus on the various medications and stimulants used by individuals with ADD and ADHD. It covers the support research on medications and stimulants.

 

Chapter 4: Curriculum Modifications & Interventions

Chapter four focuses on the various instructional methods and adjustments that can be made in a teacher’s instructional method to accommodate the child with ADHD. The focus is to help teachers gain new skills and insights into how best to work with a child with ADHD in both structured and unstructured settings. This chapter also focuses on helping students with ADHD learn new and effective strategies to help them become more successful in an academic environment. These are also strategies that can be used in both a community and a home setting to increase overall learning skills and help with the generalization of learning skills taught in the classroom. This chapter also discusses intervention strategies that can be used to help a students with ADHD maintain focus and stay on task, and to reduce the number of distractions and off-task behavior. These strategies can be used in the classroom, community, or home environment. Also discussed in this chapter are some of the typical behavior management problems associated with ADHD children. Included is discussion of accepted prevention techniques that can be used in a variety of settings to help reduce the chances of a behavior problem. This chapter also discusses specific techniques and procedures that can be used to remediate behavior problems when they occur. These techniques can then be developed into a behavior intervention program. Such a program can be used to monitor and remediate behaviors in a variety of social settings.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Examinations

At the end of each chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times.  Your last score will save, not the highest score.  After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access.  The average from your exam scores will be printed on your certificate.  However, this is not your final grade since your required writing assignments have not been reviewed.  Exceptionally written or poorly written required writing assignments, or violation of the academic integrity policy in the course syllabus, will affect your grade.  As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam section before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Writing Assignments

This course has two required writing components.  ALL ASSIGNMENTS ARE REVIEWED. Exceptionally or poorly written assignments, or violation of the academic integrity policy noted in the course syllabus, will affect your grade. Be sure to refer to the Grading Guidelines for Writing Assignments, sent as an attachment with your original course link.

It is highly recommended that you write and save all writing assignments in an external word processing program (such as Word or Notepad), and then copy and paste these into the course program so that you will have backup copies.

To save your essays:

 

When you select the question or article you wish to respond to, ‘Simple Text’ or ‘Text Edit’ will launch automatically. When you are finished entering your response, simply click SAVE. 

You must SAVE before you write another essay or move on to another part of the course.

 

1)      Essay Requirement: Critical Thinking Questions

There are four Critical Thinking Questions that you must complete. You will do research on the questions and write brief essay responses relating it to the course content (and your personal experiences, when possible).  To view the questions, click on REQUIRED ESSAY and choose the Critical Thinking Question that you are ready to complete; this will bring up a screen where you may enter your essay.  You must write a minimum of 500 words (maximum 1,000) per essay.  You may go back at any point to edit your essays, but you must be certain to click SAVE once you have completed your edits.

You must SAVE before you write another essay or move on to another part of the course.

 

2)   Essay Requirement: Journal Articles

This task requires you to write a review of three peer-reviewed or scholarly journal articles, preferably written by an author with a Ph.D. (blogs and news articles are not acceptable) of your choice on a topic related to this course.  You may choose your topic by entering the Key Words (click on the Key Words button) into a search engine of your choice (Bing, Google, Yahoo, etc.).  Choose three relevant articles and write a critical summary of the information given in each article, explaining how the information relates to, supports, or refutes information given in this course. Conclude your review with your thoughts and impressions (200 words per journal article minimum, 400 words maximum). Be sure to provide the journal name, volume, date, and any other critical information to allow the instructor to access and review that article.

 

To write your essays, click on REQUIRED ESSAY and choose the Journal Article that you would like to complete; this will bring up a screen where you can write your review. When you are ready to stop, click SAVE.  You may go back at any point to edit your essays, but you must be certain to click SAVE once you are done with your edits. For more information on the features of this assignment, please consult the HELP menu.

You must SAVE before you write another essay or move on to another part of the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Facilitator Description

Attention Deficit Disorder has been developed by a team of professionals with educational backgrounds in the areas of clinical psychology, behavioral science, and behavior analysis and therapy. Mick Jackson, the instructor of record, is a Behavioral Intervention Specialist with a Master's Degree in Special Education with a focus on Behavioral Theory. He has 15 years of combined experience in self-contained special education classrooms, resource rooms, and a hospital day treatment setting. He has conducted oral seminars on Attention Deficit Disorder, presenting to school districts and teacher groups, as well as at educational conferences.  Please contact Professor Jackson if you have course content or examination questions.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Instructor Description

Dr. Bob Pillay is a doctoral-level instructor who has been teaching in the field of Special Education for the past 30 years. Dr. Pillay has received numerous national and international awards for his research in the field. He has headed boards and committees in more than five countries, including Australia, the Philippines, and Southeast Asia, to develop and strengthen special services. Dr. Pillay has extensive knowledge of special education issues in the U.S. due to his doctoral studies at the University of Louisville. He was the Founding Director of the Learning Improvement Centre, which was a training facility for teachers, and a service provider to students with learning problems. He is currently a retired Senior Lecturer and Senior Fellow in Special Education at the University of Melbourne.  Please contact Professor Jackson if you have course content or examination questions.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Contacting the Facilitator

You may contact the facilitator by emailing Professor Jackson at mick@virtualeduc.com or calling him at 509-891-7219, Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. PST. Phone messages will be answered within 24 hours. Phone conferences will be limited to ten minutes per student, per day, given that this is a self-paced instructional program. Please do not contact the instructor about technical problems, course glitches, or other issues that involve the operation of the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Technical Questions

If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.

 

If you need personal assistance then email support@virtualeduc.com or call (509) 891-7219.  When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call. 

 

Minimum Computer Requirements

Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted and how to submit your completed information. The addendum will also note any additional course assignments that you may be required to complete that are not listed in this syllabus.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Bibliography (Suggested Readings)

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

 

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Official Action. (2007). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 894-921.

 

Archer, A. L., & Hughes, C. A. (2011). Explicit instruction: Effective and efficient teaching. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

 

Barkley, R. A. (2005). Taking charge of ADHD: The complete authoritative guide for parents. New York: Guilford.

 

Biederman, J. (2004). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A selective overview. Biological Psychiatry, 55(7), 692-700.

 

Burlison, J. D., & Dwyer, W. O. (2013). Risk screening for ADHD in a college population: Is there a relationship with academic performance? Journal of Attention Disorders, 17, 58-63.

 

Chard, D. J., Cook, B. G., & Tankersley, M. (2013). Research-based strategies for improving outcomes in academics. Boston, MA: Pearson.

 

Colorado Department of Education. (2012, March). Evidence based practices in school mental health: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Denver, CO: Author.

 

Conners, K. C. (2004). Conners’ Continuous Performance Test II Version 5. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.

 

Cuffe, S. P., Moore, C. G., & McKeown, R. E. (2005). Prevalence and correlates of ADHD symptoms in the national health interview study. Journal of Attention Disorders, 9, 392-401.

 

Davison, J. C. (2001, Dec.). Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Perspectives of participants in the identification and treatment process. Journal of Educational Thought, 35(3), 227-247.

 

Drugs.com. (2013).  Guanfacien. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/guanfacine.html

 

Dryer, R., Kiernan, M. J., & Tyson, G. A. (2012). Parental and professional beliefs on the treatment and management of ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 398-405.

 

DuPaul, G. J., Gormley, M. J., & Laracy, S. D. (2013). Comorbidity of LD and ADHD: Implications of DSM-5 for assessment and treatment. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 46, 43-51.

 

Leark, R. A., Greenberg, L. M., Kinschi, C. L., Dupuy, T. R., & Hughes, S. J. (2007). Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). Los Alamitos, CA: The TOVA Company.

 

Lilly Eli. (2013). Strattera. Retrieved from http://www.strattera.com/Pages/index.aspx

 

Linares, T. J., Singer, L. T., Kirchner, H. L., Short, E. J., Min, M. O., Hussey, P., & Minnes, S. (2006).  Mental health outcomes of cocaine-exposed children at 6 years of age. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31(1), 85-97.

 

Faraone, S. V., Perlis, R. H., Doyle, A. E., Smoller, J. W., Goralnick, J. J., Holmgren, M. A., and Sklar, P. (2004). Molecular genetics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1313-1323.

 

Fletcher, J. M. (2013). The effects of childhood ADHD on adult labor market outcomes. Health Economics. doi:10.1002/hec.2907.

 

Fletcher, J. M., & Wolfe, B.  (2009). Long-term consequences of childhood ADHD on criminal activities. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 12(3), 119-138.

 

Fowler, M. (2002). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (3rd ed.). NICHCY Briefing Paper. See ED 351 830 for earlier (1991) edition.

 

Freitag, C. M., Hänig, S., Schneider, A. Seitz, C., Palmason, H., Retz, W., & Meyer, J. (2012). Biological and psychosocial environmental risk factors influence symptom severity and psychiatric comorbidity in children with ADHD. Journal of Neural Transmission, 119, 81-94.

 

 

Glass, K., Flory, K., & Hankin, B. L. (2012). Symptoms of ADHD and close friendships in adolescence. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 406-417.

 

Graham, D. M., Crocker, N., Deweese, B. N., Roesch, S. C., Coles, C. D., Kable, J. A., . . . Mattson, S. N. (2013). Prenatal alcohol exposure, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and sluggish cognitive tempo. Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research, 37 (Supplement 1). doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01886.x

 

Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (2008). Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales (SISS). San Antonio, TX: Pearson.

 

Hallowell, E. M., & Ratey, J. J. (2005). Delivered from distraction: Getting the most out of life with Attention Deficit Disorder. New York: Ballantine Books.

 

Hartmann, Thom. (2003). The Edison gene: ADHD and the gift of the hunter child. Rochester, Vermont: Park Street.

 

Heward, W. L. (2013). Exceptional children: An introduction to special education (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

 

Hinshaw, S. P. (2002). Preadolescent girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: I. Background characteristics, comorbidity, cognitive and social functioning, and parenting practices. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology, 70(5), 1086-98.

 

Hinshaw, S. P., Carte, E. T., Fan, C., Jassy, J. S., & Owens, E. B. (2007). Neuropsychological functioning of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder followed prospectively into adolescence: Evidence for continuing deficits?  Neuropsychology, 21(2), 263-273. doi: 10.1037/0894-4105.21.2.263

 

Jitendra, A. K., DuPaul, G. J., Someki, F., & Tresco, K. E. (2008). Enhancing academic achievement for children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence from school-based intervention research. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 14, 325-330.

 

Kamphaus, R. W., & Reynolds, C. R. (2009). Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2): Progress Monitor. Bloomington, MN: Pearson.

 

Kooistra, L., Crawford, S., Gibbard, B., Ramage, B., & Kaplan, B. J. (2010). Differentiating attention deficits in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder or Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 52(2), 205-211.

 

Lane, K. L., Cook, B. G., & Tankersley, M. (2013). Research-based strategies for improving outcomes in behavior. Boston, MA: Pearson.

 

Langberg, J. M., Epstein, J. N., Simon, J. O., Loren, R. E. A., Arnold, L. E., Hechtman, L., et al. (2010). Parent agreement on ratings of children's Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and broadband externalizing behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(1), 41-50.

 

Lingineni, R. K., Biswas, S., Ahmad, N., Jackson, B. E., Bae, S., & Singh, K. P. (2012). Factors associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among US children: Results from a national survey. BMC Pediatrics, 12, 1-10.

 

Marchand-Martella, N. E., Martella, R. C., Przychodzin-Havis, A., Hornor, S., & Warner, L. (2013). Core lesson connections: Reading mastery signature edition. Columbus, OH: Science Research Associates/McGraw-Hill.

 

Marchand-Martella, N. E., Martella, R. C., Modderman, S. L., Petersen, H., & Pan, S. (2013). Key areas of effective adolescent literacy programs. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 161-184.

 

Martella, R. C., Nelson, J. R., Marchand-Martella, N. E., & O’Reilly, M. (2012). Comprehensive behavior management: Individualized, classroom, and schoolwide approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

 

McCarney, S. B., & Arthaud, T. J. (2004). Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale-Third Edition (ADDES-3). Columbia, MO: Hawthorne Educational Services.

 

McLoughlin, J. A., & Lewis, R. B. (2007). Assessing students with special needs (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

 

McWilliam, R. A., Cook, B. G., & Tankersley, M. (2013). Research-based strategies for improving outcomes in for targeted groups of learners. Boston, MA: Pearson.

 

Mellor, N. (2009). Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or attention seeking? Ways of distinguishing two common childhood problems. British Journal of Special Education, 36(1), 26-35.

 

Moline, S., & Frankenberger, W. (2001, Nov.). Use of stimulant medication for treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A survey of middle and high school students' attitudes. Psychology in the Schools, 38(6), 569-584.

 

Murray, D. W., Rabiner, D. L., & Hardy, K. K. (2011). Teacher management practices for first graders with attention problems. Journal of Attention Disorders, 15, 638-645.

 

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National Institute of Mental Health. (2008). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services.

 

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Pastor, P. N., & Reuben, C. A. (2008). Diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disability: United States, 2004-2006. Washington, DC: Vital and Health and Statistics, US Department of Health and Human Services.

 

Piscalkiene, V. (2009). Experimental training of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. US-China Education Review, 6(8), 17-30.  

 

Polloway, E. A., Patton, J. R., Serna, L., & Bailey, J. W. (2013). Strategies for teaching learners with special needs (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

 

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Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2007). Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH). Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside.

 

Yelich, G. A. (2001). An assessment protocol for the evaluation of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the school setting. (ERIC Identifier: ED464428)

 

Zuvekas, S. H., Vitiello, B., & Norquist, G. S. (2006, April). Recent trends in stimulant medication use among children. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(9), 992-1001.

 

Course content is updated every three years. Due to this update timeline, some URL links may no longer be active or may have changed. Please type the title of the organization into the command line of any Internet browser search window and you will be able to find whether the URL link is still active or any new link to the corresponding organization's web home page.

 

Updated 8/16/14 JN