Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder:
Information & Interventions for Effective Teaching
Instructor: Dr. Karen Lea
Facilitator: Mick R. Jackson MS/ED
Office Hours: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday – Friday
Address: Virtual Education Software
16201 E Indiana Ave, Suite 1450
Spokane, WA 99216
Welcome to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), an interactive distance learning course designed to help you achieve a better understanding of ADHD and provide intervention strategies to facilitate positive student change. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder provides information on the history of the disorder, accepted methods to assess and identify students with the disorder, and various treatment methods that are currently being used to treat the disorder. This course also lists resources for both teachers and parents who would like more help or information about ADHD.
This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer. Technical support information can be found in the Help section of your course.
Course Materials (Online)
Title: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Information & Interventions for Effective Teaching
Author: Nancy Marchand-Martella, Ph.D., Ronald C. Martella, Ph.D., Charalambos Cleanhous, Ph.D.
Publisher: Virtual Education Software, inc. 1999, Revised 2001, Revised 2010, Revised 2013, Revised 2016
Instructor: Dr. Karen Lea
Facilitator: Mick R. Jackson MS/ED
Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed, in part or in whole, to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.
Aiding Honesty in Others
The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.
Violations of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.
This course is designed to be an informational course with application to work or work-related settings. The intervention strategies are designed to be used in the remediation of students with attention deficit ranging in age from approximately 5 years to early adolescence. Some alterations may be needed if you are working with younger children.
As a result of this course, participants will demonstrate their ability to:
· Define the characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder for better understanding of the disorder
· Provide a history of the disorder to increase knowledge and understanding
· Increase ability to identify and assess students possibly having the disorder
· Increase the number of intervention strategies available to remediate academic problems and distracting or self-defeating behaviors
· Provide information on various treatment methods used in the treatment of this disorder
· Increase knowledge of the referral process for parents and/or professionals in education
· Provide resources for teachers and parents to help them and the students with whom they work
The course Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder has been divided into four chapters. This course provides information on such issues as definition, history, treatment and even some additional sources that may be accessed. The subject areas are sequential and, although it is not required, they should be completed in the order in which they are presented in the program. After completing these four sections you should have the basic framework for understanding possible causes of the disorder and effective interventions. This may also help you understand why students with ADHD have behavior problems in the classroom and other school settings and how to respond.
The first and second chapters are “History & Prevalence” and “Assessment & Special Education”; they give a clear picture of how to assess the disorder. Much of this information may be a review, but this chapter has been added so that upon completion of this chapter you will be familiar with the laws and criteria governing special education students with ADHD. Although this information may be somewhat dry, it is critical information for a classroom teacher working with students with ADHD. Furthermore, the information in this section is complete and thorough, but there is much additional information published about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We recommend that you complete readings and research outside the course materials and information to gain a fuller understanding of the disorder and its treatment. To cover all areas and issues affecting students with ADHD and their behavior would not be possible in one university course. However, this introduction section and subsequent sections should give you a firm understanding of the disorder and effective tools for facilitating positive changes with these students.
The third chapter of the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder course is titled “Resources & Approaches.” This section discusses the occurrences of the disorder and some of the possible causes. The information in this chapter serves to increase your background knowledge of ADHD, so that an effective intervention plan can be developed to help the student with both academic and behavioral difficulties. Gaining an understanding of the possible causes of the disorder will also help in understanding a child and his/her behavioral problems, as well as his/her academic needs.
Chapter four is “Curriculum Modifications & Interventions.” In this chapter you will be given information on various evaluation materials used to assess areas of academic weakness, the primary one being functional behavior assessment. This chapter describes different available interventions that can be used with these students in different subject areas. You will also be taught the different aspects of reinforcement techniques most commonly used.
These four chapters should give you a firm understanding of ADHD and the laws surrounding the disorder, its diagnosis, possible causes, assessment, and evidence-based interventions.
After you complete each chapter of the course, an examination will be used to evaluate your knowledge and ability to apply what you’ve learned.
As a student you will be expected to:
· Complete all four information sections showing a competent understanding of the material presented in each section.
· Complete all four section examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented. You must obtain an overall score of 70% or higher, with no individual exam score below 50%, to pass this course.
· Complete a review of any section on which your examination score was below 50%. *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
· Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 50%, making sure to also be achieving an overall exam score of a minimum 70% (maximum of three attempts). *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
· Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.
This chapter helps teachers, school officials, community agencies, and parents understand the procedures for diagnosing ADHD. It will also explain some of the common characteristics of children with ADHD. This chapter will also discuss prevalence rates among cultures, genders, age groups, and other demographic groups. It will explore and explain possible causes of ADHD.
Chapter 2: Assessment & Special Education
This chapter discusses the various assessment tools and procedures that can be used in the assessment of both academic and behavioral deficits in the child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This chapter will also provide information on the federal laws that govern both special education in general and the specific laws and codes that apply to the child with ADHD in particular.
Chapter 3: Resources & Approaches
This chapter will cover both the scientific approaches to understanding ADHD and the controversial treatments that currently are being used to treat the disorder. The explanation will focus on research that has shown promise in the control of ADHD. This chapter will also focus on the various medications and stimulants used by individuals with ADHD. It covers the support research on medications and stimulants.
Chapter 4: Curriculum Modifications & Interventions
Chapter four focuses on the various instructional methods and adjustments that can be made in a teacher’s instructional method to accommodate the child with ADHD. The focus is to help teachers gain new skills and insights into how best to work with a child with ADHD in both structured and unstructured settings. This chapter also focuses on helping students with ADHD learn new and effective strategies to help them become more successful in an academic environment. These are also strategies that can be used in both a community and a home setting to increase overall learning skills and help with the generalization of learning skills taught in the classroom. This chapter also discusses intervention strategies that can be used to help students with ADHD maintain focus and stay on task, and to reduce the number of distractions and off-task behavior. These strategies can be used in the classroom, community, or home environment. Also discussed in this chapter are some of the typical behavior management problems associated with ADHD children. Included is discussion of accepted prevention techniques that can be used in a variety of settings to help reduce the chances of a behavior problem. This chapter also discusses specific techniques and procedures that can be used to remediate behavior problems when they occur. These techniques can then be developed into a behavior intervention program. Such a program can be used to monitor and remediate behaviors in a variety of social settings.
At the end of each chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score. After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access. Your final grade for the course will be determined by calculating an average score of all exams. This score will be printed on your final certificate. As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder has been developed by a team of professionals with educational backgrounds in the areas of clinical psychology, behavioral science, and behavior analysis and therapy. Mick Jackson, the instructor of record, is a Behavioral Intervention Specialist with a Master's Degree in Special Education with a focus on Behavioral Theory. He has 15 years of combined experience in self-contained special education classrooms, resource rooms, and a hospital day treatment setting. He has conducted oral seminars on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, presenting to school districts and teacher groups, as well as at educational conferences. Please contact Professor Jackson if you have course content or examination questions.
You may contact the facilitator by emailing Professor Jackson at firstname.lastname@example.org or calling him at 509-891-7219, Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. PST. Phone messages will be answered within 24 hours. Phone conferences will be limited to ten minutes per student, per day, given that this is a self-paced instructional program. Please do not contact the instructor about technical problems, course glitches, or other issues that involve the operation of the course.
If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.
If you need personal assistance then email email@example.com or call (509) 891-7219. When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call.
Minimum Computer Requirements
Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.
Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted and how to submit your completed information. The addendum will also note any additional course assignments that you may be required to complete that are not listed in this syllabus.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Official Action. (2007). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 894-921.
Anastopoulos, A. D., & King, K. A. A cognitive-behavior therapy and mentoring program for college students with ADHD. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 22, 141-151.
Archer, A. L., & Hughes, C. A. (2011). Explicit instruction: Effective and efficient teaching. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Barkley, R. A. (2005). Taking charge of ADHD: The complete authoritative guide for parents. New York: Guilford.
Biederman, J. (2004). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A selective overview. Biological Psychiatry, 55(7), 692-700.
Burlison, J. D., & Dwyer, W. O. (2013). Risk screening for ADHD in a college population: Is there a relationship with academic performance? Journal of Attention Disorders, 17, 58-63.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/materials.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Data and statistics. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html
Chard, D. J., Cook, B. G., & Tankersley, M. (2013). Research-based strategies for improving outcomes in academics. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Colorado Department of Education. (2012, March). Evidence based practices in school mental health: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Denver, CO: Author.
Conners, K. C. (2004). Conners’ Continuous Performance Test II Version 5. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.
Cuffe, S. P., Moore, C. G., & McKeown, R. E. (2005). Prevalence and correlates of ADHD symptoms in the national health interview study. Journal of Attention Disorders, 9, 392-401.
Daley, D., & Birchwood, J. (2010). ADHD and academic performance: Why does ADHD impact on academic performance and what can be done to support ADHD children in the classroom? Child: Care, Health and Development, 36, 455-464.
Daniels, B., Volpe, R. J., Briesch, A. M., & Fabiano, G. A. (2014). Development of a problem-focused behavioral screener linked to evidence-based intervention. School Psychology Quarterly, 29, 438-451.
Davison, J. C. (2001, Dec.). Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Perspectives of participants in the identification and treatment process. Journal of Educational Thought, 35(3), 227-247.
Drugs.com. (2013). Guanfacien. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/guanfacine.html
Dryer, R., Kiernan, M. J., & Tyson, G. A. (2012). Parental and professional beliefs on the treatment and management of ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 398-405.
DuPaul, G. J., Gormley, M. J., & Laracy, S. D. (2013). Comorbidity of LD and ADHD: Implications of DSM-5 for assessment and treatment. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 46, 43-51.
DuPaul, G. J., & Jimerson, S. R. (2014). Assessing, understanding, and supporting students with ADHD at school: Contemporary science, practice, and policy. School Psychology Quarterly, 29, 379-384.
DuPaul, G. J., Reid, R., Anastopoulos, A. D., & Power, T. J. (2014).Assessing ADHD symptomatic behaviors and functional impairment in school settings: Impact of student and teacher characteristics. School Psychology Quarterly, 29, 409-421.
Leark, R. A., Greenberg, L. M., Kinschi, C. L., Dupuy, T. R., & Hughes, S. J. (2007). Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). Los Alamitos, CA: The TOVA Company.
Lilly Eli. (2013). Strattera. Retrieved from http://www.strattera.com/Pages/index.aspx
Linares, T. J., Singer, L. T., Kirchner, H. L., Short, E. J., Min, M. O., Hussey, P., & Minnes, S. (2006). Mental health outcomes of cocaine-exposed children at 6 years of age. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31(1), 85-97.
Faraone, S. V., Perlis, R. H., Doyle, A. E., Smoller, J. W., Goralnick, J. J., Holmgren, M. A., and Sklar, P. (2004). Molecular genetics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1313-1323.
Fletcher, J. M. (2013). The effects of childhood ADHD on adult labor market outcomes. Health Economics. doi:10.1002/hec.2907.
Fletcher, J. M., & Wolfe, B. (2009). Long-term consequences of childhood ADHD on criminal activities. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 12(3), 119-138.
Fowler, M. (2002). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (3rd ed.). NICHCY Briefing Paper. See ED 351 830 for earlier (1991) edition.
Freitag, C. M., Hänig, S., Schneider, A. Seitz, C., Palmason, H., Retz, W., & Meyer, J. (2012). Biological and psychosocial environmental risk factors influence symptom severity and psychiatric comorbidity in children with ADHD. Journal of Neural Transmission, 119, 81-94.
Glass, K., Flory, K., & Hankin, B. L. (2012). Symptoms of ADHD and close friendships in adolescence. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 406-417.
Graham, D. M., Crocker, N., Deweese, B. N., Roesch, S. C., Coles, C. D., Kable, J. A., . . . Mattson, S. N. (2013). Prenatal alcohol exposure, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and sluggish cognitive tempo. Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research, 37 (Supplement 1). doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01886.x
Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (2008). Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales (SISS). San Antonio, TX: Pearson.
Hallowell, E. M., & Ratey, J. J. (2005). Delivered from distraction: Getting the most out of life with Attention Deficit Disorder. New York: Ballantine Books.
Hartmann, Thom. (2003). The Edison gene: ADHD and the gift of the hunter child. Rochester, Vermont: Park Street.
Heward, W. L. (2013). Exceptional children: An introduction to special education (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Hinshaw, S. P. (2002). Preadolescent girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: I. Background characteristics, comorbidity, cognitive and social functioning, and parenting practices. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology, 70(5), 1086-98.
Hinshaw, S. P., Carte, E. T., Fan, C., Jassy, J. S., & Owens, E. B. (2007). Neuropsychological functioning of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder followed prospectively into adolescence: Evidence for continuing deficits? Neuropsychology, 21(2), 263-273. doi: 10.1037/0894-4220.127.116.113
Jitendra, A. K., DuPaul, G. J., Someki, F., & Tresco, K. E. (2008). Enhancing academic achievement for children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence from school-based intervention research. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 14, 325-330.
Kamphaus, R. W., & Reynolds, C. R. (2009). Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2): Progress Monitor. Bloomington, MN: Pearson.
Kooistra, L., Crawford, S., Gibbard, B., Ramage, B., & Kaplan, B. J. (2010). Differentiating attention deficits in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder or Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 52(2), 205-211.
Lane, K. L., Cook, B. G., & Tankersley, M. (2013). Research-based strategies for improving outcomes in behavior. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Langberg, J. M., Epstein, J. N., Simon, J. O., Loren, R. E. A., Arnold, L. E., Hechtman, L., et al. (2010). Parent agreement on ratings of children's Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and broadband externalizing behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(1), 41-50.
Lingineni, R. K., Biswas, S., Ahmad, N., Jackson, B. E., Bae, S., & Singh, K. P. (2012). Factors associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among US children: Results from a national survey. BMC Pediatrics, 12, 1-10.
Marchand-Martella, N. E., Martella, R. C., Przychodzin-Havis, A., Hornor, S., & Warner, L. (2013). Core lesson connections: Reading mastery signature edition. Columbus, OH: Science Research Associates/McGraw-Hill.
Marchand-Martella, N. E., Martella, R. C., Modderman, S. L., Petersen, H., & Pan, S. (2013). Key areas of effective adolescent literacy programs. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 161-184.
Martella, R. C., Nelson, J. R., Marchand-Martella, N. E., & O’Reilly, M. (2012). Comprehensive behavior management: Individualized, classroom, and schoolwide approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Martin, A. J. (2014). The role of ADHD in academic adversity: Disentangling ADHD effects from other personal and contextual factors. School Psychology Quarterly, 29, 395-408.
McCarney, S. B., & Arthaud, T. J. (2004). Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale-Third Edition (ADDES-3). Columbia, MO: Hawthorne Educational Services.
McLoughlin, J. A., & Lewis, R. B. (2007). Assessing students with special needs (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
McWilliam, R. A., Cook, B. G., & Tankersley, M. (2013). Research-based strategies for improving outcomes in for targeted groups of learners. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Mellor, N. (2009). Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or attention seeking? Ways of distinguishing two common childhood problems. British Journal of Special Education, 36(1), 26-35.
Moline, S., & Frankenberger, W. (2001, Nov.). Use of stimulant medication for treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A survey of middle and high school students' attitudes. Psychology in the Schools, 38(6), 569-584.
Murray, D. W., Rabiner, D. L., & Hardy, K. K. (2011). Teacher management practices for first graders with attention problems. Journal of Attention Disorders, 15, 638-645.
National Association for School Psychologists. (2011). Position statement: Students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Bethesda, MD: Author.
National Institute on Drug Abuse (2013). Prescription drugs: Abuse and addiction. Research Report Series. Retrieved from www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/prescription-drugs/director
National Institute of Mental Health. (2008). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services.
National Institute of Mental Health. (2016). Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/index.shtml
National Resource Center on ADHD: A program of CHADD. (2015). About ADHD. Retrieved from http://www.chadd.org/Understanding-ADHD/About-ADHD.aspx
Noland, J. S., Singer, L. T., Short, E. J., Minnes, S., Arendt, R. E., Kirchner, H. L., & Bearer, C. (2005). Prenatal drug exposure and selective attention in preschoolers. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 27, 429-438.
Pastor, P. N., & Reuben, C. A. (2008). Diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disability: United States, 2004-2006. Washington, DC: Vital and Health and Statistics, US Department of Health and Human Services.
Physicians’ desk reference. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.pdr.net/
Piscalkiene, V. (2009). Experimental training of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. US-China Education Review, 6(8), 17-30.
Polloway, E. A., Patton, J. R., Serna, L., & Bailey, J. W. (2013). Strategies for teaching learners with special needs (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Power, T. J., Werba, B. E., Watkins, M. W., Angelucci, J. G., & Eiraldi, R. B. (2006). Patterns of parent-reported homework problems among ADHD-referred and non-referred children. School Psychology Quarterly, 21, 13-33.
Sexton, C. C., Gelhorn, H. L., Bell, J. A., & Classi, P. M. (2012). The co-occurrence of reading disorder and ADHD: Epidemiology, treatment, psychosocial impact, and economic burden. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45, 538-564.
Sibley, M. H., Altszuler, A. R., Morrow, A. S., & Merrill, B. M. (2014). Mapping the academic problem behaviors of adolescence with ADHD. School Psychology Quarterly, 29, 422-437.
Sibley, M. H., Waxmonsky, J. G., Robb, J. A., & Pelham, W. E. (2013). Implications of changes for the field: ADHD. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 46, 34-42.
Sikora, D. M., Vora, P., Coury, D. L., & Rosenberg, D. (2012). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, adaptive functioning, and quality of life in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Pediatrics, 130, S91-S97.
Smith, S. W., & Yell, M. L. (2013). A teacher’s guide to preventing behavior problems in the elementary classroom. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Solanto, M. V., Wasserstein, J., Marks, D. J., & Mitchell, K. J. (2012). Diagnosis of ADHD in adults: What is the appropriate DSM-5 symptom threshold for hyperactivity-impulsivity? Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 631-634.
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S., & Halperin, Jeffrey M. (2010). Developmental phenotypes and causal pathways in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Potential targets for early intervention. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(4), 368-389.
Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Balla, D. A. (2005). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II). San Antonio, TX: Pearson.
Subcommittee on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Steering Committee on Quality Improvement and Management. (2011). ADHD: Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 128, 1007-1022.
Szatmari, P., Offord, D. R., & Boyle, M. H., Correlates. (2006). Associated impairments and patterns of service utilization of children with Attention Deficit Disorder: Findings from the Ontario Child Health Study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30(2), 205-217.
Tannock, R. (2013). Rethinking ADHD and LD in DSM-5: Proposed changes in diagnostic criteria. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 46, 5-25.
Trout, A. L., Linenemann, T. O., Reid, R., & Epstein, M. H. (2007). A review of non-medication interventions to improve the academic performance of children and youth with ADHD. Remedial and Special Education, 28, 207-226.
Tucker, B. F., Singleton, A. H., & Weaver, T. L. (2013). Teaching mathematics in diverse classrooms for grades K-4: Practical strategies and activities that promote understanding and problem solving ability. Boston, MA: Pearson.
US Department of Education. (2006). Teaching children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Instructional strategies and practices. Washington, DC: Author.
US Department of Education. (2012). WWC review of the report “Enhancing the effectiveness of special education programming for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using a daily report card.” Washington, DC: What Works Clearinghouse.
Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. S. (2012). Strategies for teaching students with learning and behavior problems (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Visser, S. N., Bitsko, R. H., Danielson, M. L., Ghandhour, R., Blumberg, S. J., Schieve, L., Holbrook, J., Wolraich, M., Cuffe, S. (2015). Treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among children with special health care needs. Journal of Pediatrics,166, 1423-1430.
Walker, H. M., & McConnell, S. (1995). Walker-McConnell Scale of Social Competence and School Adjustment. San Diego, CA: Singular.
Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition (WIAT-III) (2009). San Antonio, TX: Pearson.
Wilkinson, G. S., & Robertson, G. J. (2006). Wide Range Achievement Test 4 (WRAT4). Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services.
Willcutt, E. G., Doyle, A. E., Nigg, J. T., Faraone, S. V., & Pennington, B. F. (2005). Validity of the executive function theory of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A meta-analytic review. Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1336-1346.
Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2007). Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH). Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside.
Yelich, G. A. (2001). An assessment protocol for the evaluation of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the school setting. (ERIC Identifier: ED464428)
Young, J. L. (2015, August 13). Best practices in the treatment of ADHD: Exploring the components of effective treatments. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/when-your-adult-child-breaks-your-heart/201508/best-practices-in-the-treatment-adhd
Zuvekas, S. H., Vitiello, B., & Norquist, G. S. (2006, April). Recent trends in stimulant medication use among children. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(9), 992-1001.
Course content is updated every three years. Due to this update timeline, some URL links may no longer be active or may
have changed. Please type the title of the organization into the command line of any Internet browser search window and
you will be able to find whether the URL link is still active or any new link to the corresponding organization's web home