Attention Deficit Disorder:
Information & Interventions for Effective Teaching
Instructor Name: Mick Jackson
Office Hours: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday – Friday
Address: Virtual Education Software
16201 E Indiana Ave, Suite 1450
Spokane, WA 99216
Welcome to Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD/ADHD), an interactive distance learning course designed to help you achieve a better understanding of ADD and provide intervention strategies to facilitate positive student change. Attention Deficit Disorder provides information on the history of the disorder, accepted methods to assess and identify students with the disorder, and various treatment methods that are currently being used to treat the disorder. The course helps you through the referral process when you feel a student needs services beyond what you are capable of or comfortable providing in your classroom environment. This course also lists resources for both teachers and parents who would like more help or information about ADD.
This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer. Technical support information can be found, in the Help section of your course.
Title: Attention Deficit Disorder: Information & Interventions for Effective Teaching
Author: Nancy Marchand-Martella, Ph.D., Ronald C. Martella, Ph.D., Charalambos Cleanhous, Ph.D.
Publisher: Virtual Education Software, inc. 1999, Revised 2001, Revised 2010
Instructor: Mick R. Jackson MS/ED
Academic Integrity Statement
The structure and format of most distance-learning courses presume a high level of personal and academic integrity in completion and submission of coursework. Individuals enrolled in a distance-learning course are expected to adhere to the following standards of academic conduct.
Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed, in part or in whole, to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.
Aiding Honesty in Others
The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.
Violations of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.
Level of Application
This course is designed to be an informational course with application to work or work-related settings. The intervention strategies were designed to be used in the remediation of attention deficit students ranging in age from approximately five years to early adolescence. Some alterations may be needed if working with younger children.
· To define the characteristics of attention deficit for better understanding of the disorder
· To provide a history of the disorder to increase knowledge and understanding
· To increase ability to identify and assess students possibly having the disorder
· To increase the number of intervention strategies available to remediate academic problems and distracting or self-defeating behaviors
· To provide information on various treatment methods used in the treatment of this disorder
· To increase knowledge of the referral process for parents and/or professionals in education
· To provide resources for teachers and parents to help them and the students with whom they work
The course Attention Deficit Disorder has been divided into four chapters. This course will provide information on such issues as definition, history, treatment and even some referral sources that may be accessed. The subject areas are sequential and, although it is not required, they should be completed in the order in which they are presented in the program. After completing these four sections you should have the basic framework for understanding what causes the disorder. This may also help you understand why students with ADD have behavioral problems in the classroom and other school settings.
The first and second chapters are “History & Prevalence” and “Assessment & Special Education”; they give a clear picture of how to assess the disorder. Much of this information may be a review, but this chapter has been added so that upon completion of this chapter you will be familiar with the laws and criteria governing special education students with ADD and ADHD. Although this information may be somewhat dry, it is critical information for a classroom teacher working with ADD and ADHD students. Furthermore, while the information in this section is complete and thorough, there is much information published about Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactive Disorder. We recommend that you complete readings and research outside the course materials and information to gain a fuller understanding of the disorder and its treatment. To cover all areas and issues affecting ADD students and their behavior would not be possible in one university course. However, this introduction section and subsequent sections should give you a firm understanding of the disorder and effective tools for facilitating positive changes with these students.
The third chapter of the Attention Deficit Disorder course is titled “Resources & Approaches.” This section discusses the occurrences of the disorder and some of the possible causes. The information in this chapter serves to increase your background knowledge of ADD and ADHD, so that an effective intervention plan can be developed to help the student with both academic and behavioral difficulties. Gaining an understanding of the possible cause of the disorder will also help in the understanding of a child and his/her behavioral problems, as well as his/her academic needs.
Chapter four is “Curriculum Modifications & Interventions.” In this chapter you will be given information on various evaluation materials used to assess areas of academic weakness, the primary one being functional behavior analysis. This chapter describes different available interventions that can be used with these students in different subject areas. You will also be taught the different aspects of reinforcement techniques most commonly used.
These four chapters should give you a firm understanding of ADD, its diagnosis, possible causes, assessment, and the laws surrounding the disorder.
After you complete each chapter of the course, an examination will be used to evaluate your knowledge and ability to apply what you’ve learned.
As a student you will be expected to:
· Complete all information sections covering Attention Deficit Disorder, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.
· Complete all section examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.
· Complete a review of any section on which your examination score was below 70%.
· Retake any section examination, after completing an information review, to increase that section examination score to a minimum of 70% (maximum of three attempts).
· Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.
Chapter 1: History & Prevalence
This chapter helps teachers, school officials, community agencies, and parents understand the procedures for diagnosing ADD and ADHD. It will also explain some of the common characteristics of ADD children. This chapter will also discuss prevalence rates among cultures, genders, age groups, and other demographic groups. It will explore and explain possible causes of both ADD and ADHD.
Chapter 2: Assessment & Special Education
This chapter discusses the various assessment tools and procedures that can be used in the assessment of both academic and behavioral deficits in the Attention Deficit Disorder child. This chapter will also provide information on the federal laws that govern both special education in general and the specific laws and codes that apply to the ADD and ADHD child in particular.
Chapter 3: Resources & Approaches
This chapter will cover both the scientific approaches to understanding ADD and the controversial treatments that currently are being used to treat the disorder. The explanation will focus on research that has shown promise in the control of ADD and ADHD. This chapter will also focus on the various medications and stimulants used by individuals with ADD. It covers the support research on medications and stimulants.
Chapter 4: Curriculum Modifications & Interventions
Chapter four focuses on the various instructional methods and adjustments that can be made in a teacher’s instructional method to accommodate the ADD child. The focus is to help teachers gain new skills and insights into how best to work with an ADD child in both structured and unstructured settings. This chapter also focuses on helping ADD students learn new and effective strategies to help them become more successful in an academic environment. These are also strategies that can be used in both a community and home setting to increase overall learning skills and help with the generalization of learning skills taught in the classroom. This chapter also discusses intervention strategies that can be used to help an ADD or ADHD student maintain focus and stay on task, and to reduce the number of distractions and off-task behavior. These strategies can be used in the classroom, community, or home environment. Also discussed in this chapter are some of the typical behavior management problems associated with ADD and ADHD children. Included is discussion of accepted prevention techniques that can be used in a variety of settings to help reduce the chances of a behavior problem. This chapter also discusses specific techniques and procedures that can be used to remediate behavior problems when they occur. These techniques can then be developed into a behavior intervention program. Such a program can be used to monitor and remediate behaviors in a variety of social settings.
At the end of each chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score. After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access. Your final grade for the course will be determined by calculating an average score of all exams. This score will be printed on your final certificate. As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.
Attention Deficit Disorder has been developed by a team of professionals with educational backgrounds in the areas of clinical psychology, behavioral science, and behavior analysis and therapy. Mick Jackson, the instructor of record, is a Behavioral Intervention Specialist with a Master's Degree in Special Education with a focus on Behavioral Theory. He has 15 years of combined experience in self-contained special education classrooms, resource rooms, and a hospital day treatment setting. He has conducted oral seminars on Attention Deficit Disorder, presenting to school districts and teacher groups, as well as at educational conferences.
Contacting the Instructor
You may contact the instructor by emailing Mick at firstname.lastname@example.org or calling him at 509-891-7219, Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. PST. Phone messages will be answered within 24 hours. Phone conferences will be limited to ten minutes per student, per day, given that this is a self-paced instructional program. Please do not contact the instructor about technical problems, course glitches, or other issues that involve the operation of the course.
If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.
If you need personal assistance then email email@example.com or call (509) 891-7219. When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call.
Minimum Computer Requirements
Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.
Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted, and how to submit your completed information.
Bibliography (Suggested Readings)
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Barkley, R. A. (2005). Taking charge of ADHD: The complete authoritative guide for parents. New York: Guilford.
Biederman, J. (2004). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A selective overview. Biological Psychiatry, 55(7), 692-700.
Davison, J. C. (2001, Dec.). Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Perspectives of participants in the identification and treatment process. Journal of Educational Thought, 35(3), 227-247.
Erk, R. R. (2000). Five frameworks for increasing understanding and effective treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Predominantly Inattentive Type. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78, 389-399.
Faraone, S. V., Perlis, R. H., Doyle, A. E., Smoller, J. W., Goralnick, J. J., Holmgren, M. A., and Sklar, P. (2004). Molecular genetics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1313-1323.
Fowler, M. (2002). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (3rd ed.). NICHCY Briefing Paper. See ED 351 830 for earlier (1991) edition.
Hallowell, E. M., & Ratey, J. J. (2005). Delivered from distraction: Getting the most out of life with Attention Deficit Disorder. New York: Ballantine Books.
Hartmann, Thom. (2003). The Edison gene: ADHD and the gift of the hunter child. Rochester, Vermont: Park Street.
Ingersol, B., & Goldstein, S. (1993). Attention Deficit Disorder and learning disabilities: Realities, myths, and controversial treatments. New York: Doubleday.
Kooistra, L., Crawford, S., Gibbard, B., Ramage, B., & Kaplan, B. J. (2010). Differentiating attention deficits in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder or Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 52(2), 205-211.
Langberg, J. M., Epstein, J. N., Simon, J. O., Loren, R. E. A., Arnold, L. E., Hechtman, L., et al. (2010). Parent agreement on ratings of children's Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and broadband externalizing behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(1), 41-50.
Lazarus, B., & Killu, K. (1999). Attention Deficit Disorders evaluation scale - Second edition (ADDES II). Diagnostique, 24(1-4), 1-16.
Marshall, R. M., Schafer, V. A., O'Donnell, L., Elliott, J., & Handwerk, M. L. (1999, May-June). Arithmetic disabilities and ADD subtypes: Implications for DSM-IV. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32(3), 239-247.
Mellor, N. (2009). Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or attention seeking? Ways of distinguishing two common childhood problems. British Journal of Special Education, 36(1), 26-35.
Moline, S., & Frankenberger, W. (2001, Nov.). Use of stimulant medication for treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A survey of middle and high school students' attitudes. Psychology in the Schools, 38(6), 569-584.
Nadeau, K., & Dixon, E. (1993). Learning to slow down and pay attention. Annandale, VA: Chesapeake Psychological.
Piscalkiene, V. (2009). Experimental training of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. US-China Education Review, 6(8), 17-30.
Parker, H. C. (1992). The ADD hyperactivity handbook for schools: Effective strategies for identifying and treating ADD students in elementary and secondary schools. Plantation, FL: Impact.
Parker, R. (1992). Making the grade: An adolescent's struggle with ADD. Plantation, FL: Impact.
Pastor, P. N., & Reuben, C. A. (2002). Attention Deficit Disorder and learning disability: United States, 1997-98. Vital Health and Statistics. Data from the National Health Interview Survey.
Place, M., Wilson, J., Martin, E., & Hulsmeier, J. (1999, Sept.). Attention Deficit Disorder as a factor in the origin of behavioural disturbance in schools. British Journal of Special Education, 26(3), 158-163.
Power, T. J., Andrews, T. J., Eiraldi, R. B., Doherty, B. J., Ikeda, M. J., DuPaul, G. J., & Landau, S. (1998). Evaluating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder using multiple informants: The incremental utility of combining teacher with parent reports. Psychological Assessment, 10, 250-260.
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Halperin, Jeffrey M. (2010). Developmental phenotypes and causal pathways in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Potential targets for early intervention. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(4), 368-389.
Stormont, M., Stebbins, M. S., & McIntosh, D. E. (1999, Nov.). Characteristics and types of services received by children with two types of attention deficits. School Psychology International, 20(4), 365-375.
Szatmari, P., Offord, D. R., & Boyle, M. H., Correlates. (2006). Associated impairments and patterns of service utilization of children with Attention Deficit Disorder: Findings from the Ontario Child Health Study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30(2), 205-217.
Wender, P. H. (1995). Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Willcutt, E. G., Doyle, A. E., Nigg, J. T., Faraone, S. V., & Pennington, B. F. (2005). Validity of the executive function theory of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A meta-analytic review. Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1336-1346.
Yelich, G. A. (2001). An assessment protocol for the evaluation of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the school setting. (ERIC Identifier: ED464428)
Zuvekas, S. H., Vitiello, B., & Norquist, G. S. (2006, April). Recent trends in stimulant medication use among children. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(9), 992-1001.
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Updated 10/24/11 JN