logo_slogan_bw_med

 

English Language Learner: Language Acquisition

 

Instructor Name:          Dr. Karen Lea

Phone:                         509-891-7219

Office Hours:               8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday

Email:                          karen_lea@virtualeduc.com

Address:                      Virtual Education Software

                                    16201 E Indiana Ave, Suite 1450

                                    Spokane, WA 99216

Technical Support:       support@virtualeduc.com

                                                                                                                                                                                   

English Language Learner: Language Acquisition was written to help teachers understand concepts and terms related to educating students whose first language is not English. This course discusses developmental theories and how they apply to English language learners. The focus of this course is on the process of second language acquisition and the role of the classroom teacher. Included in this course is information about literacy development, integration of language, co-teaching, ELL instructional needs, the legal obligations of schools and teachers to provide services, and the types of programs schools might provide. Also included is information about communicating with parents/guardians.

 

This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer.  Technical support information can be found in the Help section of your course.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Course Materials (Online)

Title:                English Language Learner: Language Acquisition

Instructor:       Dr. Karen Lea

Publisher:        Virtual Education Software, inc. 2019

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Academic Integrity Statement

The structure and format of most distance-learning courses presume a high level of personal and academic integrity in completion and submission of coursework. Individuals enrolled in a distance-learning course are expected to adhere to the following standards of academic conduct.

 

Academic Work

Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed, in part or in whole, to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.

 

Aiding Honesty in Others

The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.

 

Violation of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Level of Application

This course is designed as an informational course for K–12 teachers, administrators, parents, and related service personnel. Information discussed is designed to help you better understand second language acquisition and current educational models being used to educate English language learners. This course will allow you to compare and identify how school districts in your own area are implementing English language learning programs, handling current issues, and some of the practices teachers are using to educate students and communicate with parents/guardians. 

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Expected Learning Outcomes

As a result of taking this course, participants will be able to demonstrate their ability to:

1.      Identify key legislation that affects the education of English language learners

2.      Apply knowledge of developmental theories to teaching English language learners

3.      Analyze language acquisition theories and processes at various stage of language development

4.      Review and discuss literacy development for ELL students

5.      Apply knowledge of diversity theories, equity theories, biases, and stereotypes

6.      Develop strategies for co-teaching across subject areas with English language learners

7.      Identify a personal cultural identity and drive

8.      Design curriculum that integrates language into the content of instruction

9.      Analyze how environment, community, family, and culture influences English language learners

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Course Description

Information provided in this course has been divided into four chapters, which should be completed in the order in which they are presented in the program. Once you have completed these four chapters, you should have a better understanding of the concept of second language acquisition. You are strongly encouraged to read additional journal articles, books, and research materials outside the course material to gain a better understanding of current issues related to educating students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms.

 

Chapter 1: Developmental Theories

This chapter focuses on developmental theories and their application to second language acquisition. This is foundational knowledge educators should have to understand how to teach students who are English language learners.

 

Chapter 2: Language Acquisition

Chapter 2 focuses on the process of first and second language acquisition and how students learn BICS and CALPS. Understanding the process of learning a language is fundamental to teaching English language learners.

 

Chapter 3: Culture & Language

This chapter focuses on the relationship between culture and language and the importance of that relationship. Included are strategies for learning about the culture of students and families. Without a foundational understanding of culture, educators will not be able to adequately relate to all students and families.

 

Chapter 4: Programs/Home

Chapter four focuses on the various types of English language learner programs schools and districts might use. Included is a discussion on how to effectively communicate with parents/guardians. 

                                                                                                                                                                       

Student Expectations 

As a student you will be expected to:

·         Complete all four information sections showing a competent understanding of the material presented in each section.

·         Complete all four section examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.  You must obtain an overall score of 70% or higher, with no individual exam score below 50%, and successfully complete ALL writing assignments to pass this course. *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.

·         Complete a review of any section on which your examination score was below 50%.

·         Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 50%, making sure to also be achieving an overall exam score of a minimum 70% (maximum of three attempts). *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.

·         Complete all course journal article and essay writing assignments with the minimum word count shown for each writing assignment.

·         Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Examinations

            At the end of each course section, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score.  After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access.  The average from your exam scores will be printed on your certificate.  However, this is not your final grade since your required writing assignments have not been reviewed.  Exceptionally written or poorly written required writing assignments, or violation of the academic integrity policy in the course syllabus, will affect your grade.  As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Writing Assignments

All assignments are reviewed and may impact your final grade.  Exceptionally or poorly written assignments, or violation of the Academic Integrity Policy (see course syllabus for policy), will affect your grade. Fifty percent of your grade is determined by your writing assignments, and your overall exam score determines the other fifty percent.  Refer to the Essay Grading Guidelines which were sent as an attachment with your original course link. You should also refer to the Course Syllabus Addendum which was sent as an attachment with your original course link, to determine if you have any writing assignments in addition to the Critical Thinking Questions (CTQ) and Journal Article Summations (JAS).  If you do, the Essay Grading Guidelines will also apply.

 

Your writing assignments must meet the minimum word count and are not to include the question or your final citations as part of your word count.  In other words, the question and citations are not to be used as a means to meet the minimum word count.

 

Critical Thinking Questions

There are four CTQs that you are required to complete. You will need to write a minimum of 500 words (maximum 1,000) per essay. You should explain how the information that you gained from the course will be applied and clearly convey a strong understanding of the course content as it relates to each CTQ.   To view the questions, click on REQUIRED ESSAY and choose the CTQ that you are ready to complete; this will bring up a screen where you may enter your essay.  Prior to course submission, you may go back at any point to edit your essay, but you must be certain to click SAVE once you are done with your edits.

 

You must click SAVE before you write another essay or move on to another part of the course.

Journal Article Summations

You are required to write, in your own words, a summary on a total of three peer-reviewed or scholarly journal articles (one article per JAS), written by an author with a Ph.D., Ed.D. or similar, on the topic outlined within each JAS section in the “Required Essays” portion of the course  (blogs, abstracts, news articles or similar are not acceptable). Your article choice must relate specifically to the discussion topic listed in each individual JAS. You will choose a total of three relevant articles (one article per JAS) and write a thorough summary of the information presented in each article (you must write a minimum of  200 words with a 400 word maximum per JAS). Be sure to provide the URL or the journal name, volume, date, and any other critical information to allow the facilitator to access and review each article. 

 

To write your summary, click on REQUIRED ESSAYS and choose the JAS that you would like to complete. A writing program will automatically launch where you can write your summary. When you are ready to stop, click SAVE.  Prior to course submission you may go back at any point to edit your summaries but you must be certain to click SAVE once you are done with your edits. For more information on the features of this assignment, please consult the HELP menu.

 

You must click SAVE before you write another summary or move on to another part of the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Instructor Description

Karen Lea holds a Ph.D. in education. Dr. Lea has fifteen years’ experience teaching at the K-12 level and another fourteen years’ experience teaching education courses at the undergraduate and post-graduate level. Currently she is an Assessment Developer at Western Governor's University. Dr. Lea has been professionally published over fifteen times and has served on over a dozen panels and boards, including serving on the NCATE (CAEP) Board of Examiners.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Contacting the Instructor

You may contact the instructor by emailing karen_lea@virtualeduc.com or by calling (509) 891-7219 Monday through Friday. Calls made during office hours will be answered within 24 hours. Phone conferences will be limited to ten minutes per student, per day, given that this is a self-paced instructional program. Please do not contact the instructor about technical problems, course glitches, or other issues that involve the operation of the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Technical Questions

If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.

 

If you need personal assistance then email support@virtualeduc.com or call (509) 891-7219.  When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call. 

                                                        

Minimum Computer Requirements

Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

 

Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted and how to submit your completed information. The addendum will also note any additional course assignments that you may be required to complete that are not listed in this syllabus.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Bibliography (Suggested reading)

AdLit.org. (2017). Question-Answer relationship. Retrieved from www.adlit.org/strategies/19802/

Altunel, V. (2015). The impact of extroversion and introversion on language learning in an input-based EFL setting (Master’s dissertation). University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS. Retrieved from https://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/bitstream/handle/1808/21595/ALTUNEL_ku_0099M_14242_DATA_1.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

 

American Councils for International Education. (2016). Why the dual language immersion approach will change achievement in American public schools. Retrieved from https://www.americancouncils.org/news/why-dual-language-immersion-approach-will-change-achievement-american-public-schools

 

Baldasaro, T. (2012). Embracing introversion: Ways to stimulate reserved students in the classroom. Edutopia. Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/introverted-students-in-classroom-tony-baldasaro

 

Ballantyne, K. G., Sanderman, A. R., & Levy, J. (2008). Educating English language learners: Building teacher capacity. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition.

 

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Banks, J. A., & McGee Banks, C. A. (1989). Multicultural education. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

 

Boros, T. (2016). Language acquisition. University of Debrecen. Retrieved from https://dea.lib.unideb.hu/dea/handle/2437/226738?show=full

 

Bovitch, S., Cullimore, Z., Bramwell-Jones, T., Massas, E., & Perun, D. (2013). The educational theory of Noam Chomsky. New Foundations. Retrieved from  http://www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Chomsky.html

 

Breiseth, L. (2015). What you need to know about ELLs: Fast facts. Colorin Colorado! Retrieved http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/what-you-need-know-about-ells-fast-facts

 

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bruner, J. (1983). Child’s talk: Learning to use language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

CARLA [Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition]. (2017). What is culture? University of Minnesota. Retrieved from http://carla.umn.edu/culture/definitions.html

 

Changing Minds. (2017). Stereotypes. Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/stereotypes.htm

 

Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Cirrus Test Prep. (2016). PRAXIS II English to speakers of other languages study guide. Retrieved from http://www.cirrustestprep.com/aboutus

 

Collier, S., Burston, B., & Rhodes, A. (2016). Teaching STEM as a second language: Utilizing SLA to develop equitable learning for all students. Journal for Multicultural Education, 10(3), 257-273. doi:10.1108/JME-01-2016-0013

 

Collier, M. (2017). Cultural identity theory. Retrieved from http://communicationtheory.org/cultural-identity-theory/

 

Colorado Springs School District 11. (n.d.). Instructional coach corner: Instructional practices: Eight components of Sheltered Instruction Observational Protocol (SIOP). Retrieved from http://hopemiddle.weebly.com/-8-components-of-siop.html

Conboy, B., Brooks, M., Meltzoff, A., & Kuhl, P. (2015). Social interaction in infants’ learning of second-language phonetics: An exploration of brain-behavior relations. Developmental Neuropsychology, 40(4), 216–229. doi:10.1080/87565641.2015.1014487

 

Cooper, A. (2017). Preparing all teachers to teach ELLs. Colorin Colorado! Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/preparing-all-teachers-teach-ells

 

Damen, L. (1987). Culture learning: The fifth dimension on the language classroom. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

 

Derderian-Aghajanian, A., & Cong, W. C. (2012). How culture affects on English language leaners’ (ELL’s) outcomes, with Chinese and Middle Eastern immigrant students. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(5), 172–180. Retrieved from http://ijbssnet.com/journals/Vol_3_No_5_March_2012/20.pdf

 

The Education Alliance. (2005). The two-way immersion toolkit. Brown University. Retrieved from https://www.brown.edu/academics/education-alliance/sites/brown.edu.academics.education-alliance/files/publications/toolkit_all.pdf

 

Education.com. (2017). Language learners: Key terms and definitions. Retrieved from https://www.education.com/reference/article/english-language-learners-key-terms/

 

Education Commission on the States. (2013). The progress of education reform. Retrieved from http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/01/10/20/11020.pdf

 

Education Week. (2017). Jim Rollins recognized for leadership in managing growth & demographic change. Leaders to Learn From. Retrieved from https://leaders.edweek.org/profile/jim-rollins-superintendent-managing-growth-demographic-change/ 

 

Elsac. (2017). Stages of language acquisition. Retrieved from https://enlsac2max.wordpress.com/stages-of-language-acquisition/

 

ESL Awareness. (2017). Theories of motivation and ESL students. Retrieved from https://diversitygroup-esl.wikispaces.com/Theories+of+Motivation+and+ESL+Students

 

ESL Education Group. (2017). Pull out programs. Retrieved from https://www.esl-education.org/en/home.htm

 

Fiske, S. (2015). A neural link between affective understanding and interpersonal attraction. National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(6), E2248–E2257. doi:10.1073/pnas.1516191113

 

Garcia, A. (2015). Creating a strong dual immersion program. New America. Retrieved from https://www.newamerica.org/education-policy/edcentral/beeman-part-two/

 

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Ginsburgh, V., Melitz, J., & Toubal, F. (2014, July). Foreign language learning: An econometric analysis. CEPii Working Paper. Retrieved from http://www.cepii.fr/PDF_PUB/wp/2015/wp2015-13.pdf

 

Hawk, B., & Rieder, D. (2017). Enculturation: A journal of writing and culture. Retrieved from http://enculturation.net/about

 

Hayes, A., & Mansour, N. (2016). Confidence in the knowledge base of English language learners studying science: Using agency to compensate for the lack of adequate linguistic identity. Research in Science Education, 47(2), 353–371. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11165-015-9504-8

 

Haynes, J. (2017). Stages of second language acquisition. Everything ESL. Retrieved from http://www.everythingesl.net/inservices/language_stages.php

 

Hegde, A. V., Hewett, B., & Terrell, E. (2016). Examination of teachers’ preparedness and strategies used to teach English language learners in kindergarten. Early Child Development and Care, 1–11. doi:10.1080/03004430.2016.1237513

 

Hein, K. (2017). Surefire tips for motivating ESL learners. Masters in ESL. Retrieved from http://mastersinesl.com/tips-for-motivating-esl-learners/

 

Henschel, K. (2012). Interactionist theory. Bright Hub Education. Retrieved from http://www.brighthubeducation.com/esl-teaching-tips/90410-the-interactionist-theory-of-language-acquisition-in-esl/

 

Hill, J. D., & Bjork, C. L. (2008). Classroom instruction that works with English language learners. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

 

Himmel, J. (2016). Language objectives: The key to effective content area instruction for English learners.  Colorin Colorado! Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/language-objectives-key-effective-content-area-instruction-english-learners

 

Hurley. (2017). First language acquisition. Retrieved from https://www2.leeward.hawaii.edu/hurley/Ling102web/mod5_Llearning/5mod5.3_acquisition.htm

 

Huseyin, O. (2014). Five big personality traits and willingness to communicate among foreign learners in Turkey. Social Behavior and Personality, 42(9), 1473–1482. doi:10.2224/sbp.2014.42.9.147

 

Josselson, R. (1987). Finding herself: Pathways to identity development in women. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Josselson, R. (1996). Revising herself: The story of women's identity from college to midlife. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

The IRIS Center. (2008). RTI (part 5): A closer look at tier 3. Retrieved from

https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/rti05-tier3/

 

The IRIS Center. (2006).  RTI (part 3): Reading instruction. Retrieved from https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/rti03-reading/

 

IRIS Center. (2011). Teaching English language learners: Effective instructional practices. Retrieved from https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/ell/

 

Iris Center. (2016). Transitional bilingual education. Retrieved from https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/ell/cresource/q1/p03/ell_03_link_pockets_03/

 

Kluckhohn, C., & Kelly, W. H. (1945). The concept of culture. In R. Linton (Ed.), The science of man in the world crisis (pp. 78–105). New York, NY: Merz Press.

 

Knowles, J., & Carlson, D. (2016). Reclassifying English language learners: What’s the effect on Wisconsin high schoolers? Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2016/03/09/reclassifying-english-language-learners-whats-the-effect-on-wisconsin-high-schoolers/

 

Kohlberg, L. (1981). The meaning and measure of moral development. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.

Kolke, D., & Lacorte, M. (2014, June 16). Toward intercultural competence: From questions to perspectives and practices of the target culture. Journal of Spanish Language and Teaching, 1, 15–30. doi:10.1080/23247797.2014.898497

 

Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall International.

Krashen, S. D. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford England: Pergamon.

Kroeber, A. L., & Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture: A critical review of concepts and definitions. Harvard University Peabody Museum of American Archeology and Ethnology Papers 47.

 

Kultti, A. (2014). Mealtimes in Swedish preschools: Pedagogical opportunities for toddlers learning a new language. Early Years: An International Research Journal, 34(1), 18–31. doi:10.1080/09575146.2013.831399

 

Kung, H., Lee, C-Y., & Jiaoyu, S. (2016). Factors influencing junior high school students’ English language achievement in Taiwan: A Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system approach. Journal of Educational Practice and Research, 29(1), 35–66. Retrieved from https://doaj.org/article/6846123637c3494f841290311d7ddf2b

 

Lederach, J. P. (1995). Preparing for peace: Conflict transformation across cultures. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

 

Lee, J., & Heinz, M. (2016). English language learning strategies reported by advanced language learners.  Journal of International Education Research, 12(2), 67–76. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1096670.pdf

 

Lemetyinen, H. (2012). Language acquisition. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/language.html

 

Linton, R. (1945). The cultural background of personality. New York, NY: D. Appleton-Century.

 

Livermore, D. (2015). Leading with cultural intelligence: The real secret to success. New York, NY: American Management.

 

Lopez, S. P. (2016). A quantitative comparison of the reading achievement of English learners in dual language and transitional bilingual programs (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.nl.edu/diss/166

 

Mansori, M. (2017). 4 parent engagement strategies for English language learners. Getting Smart. Retrieved from http://www.gettingsmart.com/2016/03/4-parent-engagement-strategies-english-language-learners

 

Marcia, J. E., Waterman, A. S., Matteson, D. R., Archer, S. L., & Orlofsky, J. L. (1993). Ego identity: A handbook for psychological research. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

 

Marian, V., Shook, A., & Schroeder, S. (2013). Bilingual two-way immersion programs benefit academic achievement. Bilingual Research Journal, 36, 167–186. doi:10.1080/15235882.2013.818075

 

Markos, A., Himmel, J. (2016). Using sheltered instruction to support English leaners. CAL Practitioner Brief, March, pp. 1–16. Retrieved from http://www.cal.org/siop/pdfs/briefs/using-sheltered-instruction-to-support-english-learners.pdf

 

Markova, I. (2016). Effects of academic and non-academic instructional approaches on preschool English language learners’ classroom engagement and English language development. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 15(4), 339–358. doi:10.1177/1476718X15609390

 

Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

McGowan, K. (2013). When we stop counting: An interview with Supt. Kyle McGowan. Colorin Colorado! Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/when-we-stop-counting-interview-supt-kyle-mcgowan

 

Migration Policy Institute. (2016). NCIIP: English learners and the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). Retrieved from http://www.migrationpolicy.org/programs/english-learners-and-every-student-succeeds-act

 

Millard, M. (2015, January). State funding mechanisms for English language learners. Education Commission of the State. Retrieved from https://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/01/16/94/11694.pdf

 

National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). English language learners in public schools. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cgf.asp

 

New Jersey Department of Education. (2016). Bilingual/ESL education. Retrieved from http://www.state.nj.us/education/bilingual/ell_mainstream/part_two/adaptation.html

 

Noonoo, S. (2017). How apps are helping ELL parents learn alongside their student. Getting Smart. Retrieved from http://www.gettingsmart.com/2017/04/smartphone-apps-helping-ell-parents-learn-alongside-student/

 

Ohio Department of Education. (2017). Profile of Ohio’s English language learners (ELL)/ Limited English proficient (LEP) students. Retrieved from http://education.ohio.gov/Topics/Other-Resources/Limited-English-Proficiency/Research/Profile-of-Ohio-s-English-Language-Learners-ELL

 

Parson, T. (1949). Essays in sociological theory. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.

 

Paul, A. M. (2016, May 1). Where bias begins: The truth about stereotypes. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/199805/where-bias-begins-the-truth-about-stereotypes

 

Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2017). English as a second language. Retrieved from http://www.education.pa.gov/Teachers%20-%20Administrators/Curriculum/English%20As%20A%20Second%20Language/Pages/default.aspx#tab-1

 

Porter, M. (2017, January 29). For children of bilingual parents, West Hartford School offers parent read-aloud program.  Hartford Courant. Retrieved from http://www.courant.com/community/west-hartford/hc-west-hartford-webster-school-cantonese-read-aloud-20170127-story.html

 

Psychologist World. (2017). Language acquisition. Retrieved from https://www.psychologistworld.com/cognitive/psycho-linguistics/language-acquisition.php                                                                                                                                                                                

 

Shrewsbury International School. (n.d.). A ready reckoner for teachers of English language learners. Retrieved from https://blogs.shrewsbury.ac.th/ealdept/files/2011/12/SIOP-Ready-Reckoner.pdf

Quality Teaching for English Learners. (2017). Pedagogical transformation brings newcomer English leaner success at the International Newcomer Academy. Retrieved from http://qtel.wested.org/about-us/success-stories/pedagogical-transformation-brings-newcomer-english-learner-success-at-the-international-newcomer-academy/

 

Quality Teaching for English Learners. (2017). Students reach for the stars in math with Holly. Retrieved from http://qtel.wested.org/about-us/success-stories/students-reach-for-the-stars-in-math-with-holly-delaney

 

Quinton, S. (2013). Good teachers embrace their students’ cultural backgrounds. The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2013/11/good-teachers-embrace-their-students-cultural-backgrounds/281337/

 

Rafieyan, V., Orange, M., Bijami, M., Nejad, M. S., & Eng, L. S. (2013). Language learners’ acculturation attitudes. English Language Teaching, 7(1), 114–120. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1075685.pdf.

 

Raposa, M. (2017). English language learners find success at Anne Sullivan. Argus Leader. Retrieved from http://www.argusleader.com/story/news/education/2017/03/17/english-language-learners-find-success-anne-sullivan/98898752/

 

Rosado, L. A. (2013). PRAXIS II English to speakers of other languages. New Jersey: Research & Education Association.

 

Rowe, M., & Zuckerman, B. (2016). Word gap redux: Developmental sequence and quality. JAMA Pediatrics, 170(9), 827–828. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.1360

 

Rubio, F. (2007). Self esteem and foreign language learning. Newcastle, NE: Cambridge Scholars.

 

Rutgers. (2017). How teachers can reduce stereotype threat in the classroom. Retrieved from https://cesp.rutgers.edu/blog/how-teachers-can-reduce-stereotype-threat-classroom

 

Samovar, L. A., & Porter, R. E. (Eds.). (2013). Communication between cultures. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

 

Sanchez, C. (2017). English language learners: How your state is doing. Nashville Public Radio. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2017/02/23/512451228/5-million-english-language-learners-a-vast-pool-of-talent-at-risk

 

Sapir, Edward. (1958). Culture, language and personality. Berkeley: University of California Press. 

 

Shoebottom, P. (2017). Scaffolding: An overview. In A Guide to Learning English. Retrieved from http://esl.fis.edu/index.htm

 

SIL International. (2017). Why language and culture studies? Retrieved from https://www.sil.org/why-language-culture-studies

 

Stewart, P. J., & Stathern, A. J. (2017). Language and culture. In Breaking the frames, ebook (pp. 69–78). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312006692_Breaking_the_Frames

 

Stewner-Manzanares, G. (1988) The Bilingual Education Act: Twenty years later. The National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. Retrieved from https://ncela.ed.gov/files/rcd/BE021037/Fall88_6.pdf

 

Structured English immersion in ESL instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/research-starters/structured-english-immersion-esl-instruction#research-starter-research-starter

 

Taber, J. (2016). A brief history of ESL instruction: Theories, methodologies, and upheavals. Retrieved from http://seattlecentral.edu/faculty/jgeorg/TESLSCCC/ABriefHistory.htm

 

Téllez, K., & Manthey, G. (2015). Teachers’ perceptions of effective school-wide programs and strategies for English language learners. Learning Environments Research, 18(1), 111–127. Retrieved from https://people.ucsc.edu/~ktellez/tellez_manthyLERa.pdf

 

Torres, K. M., & Turner, J. E. (2015). Heritage language learners’ perceptions of acquiring and maintaining the Spanish language. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, pp. 1–12. doi:10.1080/13670050.2015.1113927

 

Uribe, J. A. (2013). Affective language acquisition stages: Pre-production. Children Learning English Affectively. Retrieved from http://childrenlearningenglishaffectively.blogspot.com/2013/03/affective-language-acquisition-stages.html

 

Useem, J., Useem, R. H., & Donaghue, J. D. (1963). Men in the middle of the third culture: The roles of American and non-Western people in cross-cultural administration. Human Organization, 22(3), 169–179. doi:10.17730/humo.22.3.5470n44338kk6733

 

U. S. Department of Education. (2017). English-language learner success stories. Office for Civil Rights. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/success-ell.html

 

Wade, K. (2016). 5 tips to engage parents using technology they already use. 3School News. Retrieved from http://www.eschoolnews.com/2016/05/17/5-tips-to-engage-parents-using-technology-they-already-use/

 

WestEd Quality Teaching for English Learners. (n.d.). Students reach for the stars with Holly Delaney. Retrieved from https://qtel.wested.org/about-us/success-stories/students-reach-for-the-stars-in-math-with-holly-delaney/

Weyer, M. (2017). Dual- and English-language learners. National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/education/english-dual-language-learners.aspx

 

Whorf, B. L. (1940). Science and linguistics. Technology Review, 35, 229–231, 247–248. Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/allanmc/www/whorf.scienceandlinguistics.pdf

 

Woodson, K. (2017). 10 ESL strategies that successfully motivated my students to reach the next level. Fluent U. English Educator. Retrieved from http://www.fluentu.com/english/educator/blog/effective-esl-teaching-strategies-motivation/

 

Wright, W. (2017). Landmark court rulings regarding English language learners. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/landmark-court-rulings-regarding-english-language-learners

 

Yakashko, O., Mack, T., & Iwamoto, D. (2015). Minority identity development model. In K. D. Keith (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cross-Cultural Psychology (pp. 627–629). London, UK: Wiley.

 

Zazulak, S. (2015). 4 English teachers share their motivation secrets. Retrieved from https://www.english.com/blog/teachers-motivate-learners

 

Course content is updated every three years. Due to this update timeline, some URL links may no longer be active or may have changed. Please type the title of the organization into the command line of any Internet browser search window and you will be able to find whether the URL link is still active or any new link to the corresponding organization's web home page.

 

4/17/19 JN