Reading Fundamentals #1:
An Introduction to Scientifically-based Research
Instructor Name: Mick R. Jackson MS/ED
Office Hours: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday
Address: Virtual Education Software
16201 E Indiana Ave, Suite 1450
Spokane, WA 99216
Reading Fundamentals supports the concept of scientifically-based reading research to develop a phonetically-based approach to reading assessment, instruction, evaluation, and remediation.
An Introduction to Scientifically-based Research, the first in the three-course Reading Fundamentals series on effective reading instruction, was designed to give background on scientifically-based instruction as it applies to the federal legislation of 2001. The course discusses the research that supports scientifically-based research as it applies to phonetically-based instruction, assessment, and evaluation. The course explores myths and misconceptions concerning reading instruction and remediation. It also presents an evaluation checklist designed to assess the effectiveness of your current reading program. The goal of the course is to present you with research, trustworthy evidence, and background information that support the need for a reading program that is based on scientific research and proven methods.
Title: Reading Fundamentals #1: An Introduction to Scientifically-based Research
Authors: Ronald Martella, Ph.D.
Publisher: Virtual Education Software, inc. 2004, Revised 2010
Instructor: Mick Jackson MS/ED
Academic Integrity Statement
The structure and format of most distance-learning courses presume a high level of personal and academic integrity in completion and submission of coursework. Individuals enrolled in a distance-learning course are expected to adhere to the following standards of academic conduct.
Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed in part or in whole to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.
Aiding Honesty in Others
The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge these materials or information will be used improperly.
Violations of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.
Level of Application
1. Describe what is meant by critical thinking.
2. Explain what science is and illustrate the six scientific principles.
3. Explain the myths and misconceptions of science, and describe the ways in which we gain information.
4. Describe the impact science has had on medicine, clinical psychology, and education.
5. Illustrate the constraint levels in educational research.
6. Describe the concepts of reliability and validity.
7. Explain what is meant by variability, including the sources of variability.
8. Describe the terms internal and external validity, and explain the threats to each.
9. Illustrate the different research designs/methods (i.e., experimental, single-case, causal-comparative, correlational, and qualitative).
10. Describe the importance of replications and illustrate the types of replications.
11. Describe what is meant by the term research syntheses, and illustrate the National Reading Panel synthesis.
States that receive funds from the No Child Left Behind, Reading First Act need to ensure that teachers are qualified to teach reading. They must have a working knowledge of scientifically validated instructional programs and practices. According to Kilpatrick (2003), the most critical part of the Act is that there must be an increase in teachers’ knowledge of the scientific process under which instructional programs are evaluated. (Note: A summary of this legislation regarding the use of scientifically-validated instructional materials appears in Course 2.)
According to Moats (1999), research should guide the teaching profession. Unfortunately, teachers are not adequately trained in research methodology in their pre-service programs. An interesting phenomenon occurs in teacher preparation programs. Undergraduate students are rarely required to take research methods or statistics courses. Contrast this with the situation of undergraduates in psychology. Psychology undergraduates are typically required to take research and statistics courses. The interesting aspect of this difference is that students in teacher preparation programs are highly likely to be accountable for the academic progress of students in their classrooms once they become teachers. In comparison, psychology students will likely be much less accountable for the progress of individuals in their charge (e.g., direct care services such as group homes, residential facilities). In other words, if we compare the responsibilities of education college students to psychology college students, the students who would be most in need of training in the scientific process (e.g., data-based decision making) would be those preparing to be teachers.
As a student you will be expected to:
· Complete all 5 information chapters covering Scientifically-based Research, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.
· Complete all 5 chapter examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.
· Complete a review of any chapter on which your examination score was below 70%.
· Retake any chapter examination, after completing an information review, to increase that final examination score to a minimum of 70% (maximum of 3 attempts).
Chapter 1: Introduction to Scientifically-based Research
This first chapter contains information on what scientifically-based research means and discusses the myths and misconceptions of science. This chapter will lay out the basic foundation of scientifically-based research that will be used as the basis for understanding the remaining sections. There will be discussion on the Reading Excellence Act and the impact of scientifically-based research on other professions.
Chapter 2: Constraint Levels, Validity, & Variability in Research
This chapter will discuss the various types of research and the constraint levels in educational research. There will be information on the issues of reliability and validity in research and the variability that has been seen in educational research.
Chapter 3: Internal & External Validity
The third chapter will deal exclusively with internal and external validity of educational research. This chapter focuses solely on these two issues due to their importance and a need for the issue or research validity to be clearly understood.
Chapter 4: Experimental Designs
This chapter will discuss quasi-experimental design, pre-experimental design, true experimental design, and single case design. It will discuss causal-comparatives and correlational research as well as qualitative research. The chapter will also discuss objectives and methodology.
Chapter 5: Putting It All Together
At the end of each chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score. After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access. Your final grade for the course will be determined by calculating an average score of all exams. This score will be printed on your final certificate. As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.
If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.
If you need personal assistance then email email@example.com or call (509) 891-7219. When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call.
Minimum Computer Requirements
Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.
Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Atkinson, P., & Hammersley, M. (1994). Ethnography and participant observation. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 248-261). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Barlow, D. H., & Hersen, M. (1984). Single case experimental designs: Strategies for studying behavior change (2nd ed.). New York: Pergamon.
Bornstein, R. F. (1990). Publication politics, experimenter bias and the replication process in social science research. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5(4), 71-81.
Bogdan, R. C., & Biklen, S. K. (1992) Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Chambless, D. L., & Ollendick, T. H. (2001). Empirically supported psychological interventions: Controversies and evidence. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 685-716.
Fetterman, D. M. (1989). Applied social research methods series: Vol. 17. Ethnography step by step. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Fleishman, S., Kohlmoos, J. W., & Rotherham, A. J. (2003, March). From research to practice. Education Week. http://www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=26fleischman.h22
Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (1996). Educational research: An introduction (6th ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
Gilgun, J. F. (1994). A case for case studies in social work research. Social Work, 39, 371-380.
Gorsuch, G., & Taguchi, E. (2010). Developing reading fluency and comprehension using repeated reading: Evidence from longitudinal student reports. Language Teaching Research, 14(1), 27-59.
Gould, S. J. (1981). The mismeasure of man. New York: Norton.
Graziano, A. M., & Raulin, M. L. (1993). Research methods: A process of inquiry (2nd ed.). New York: Harper Collins.
Hempenstall, K. (2004). The importance of effective instruction. In N. Marchand-Martella, T. Slocum, & R. Martella (Eds.), Introduction to Direct Instruction (pp. 1-27). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Hendrick, C. (1990). Replications, strict replications, and conceptual replications: Are they important? Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5(4), 41-49.
Howe, K., & Eisenhart, M. (1990). Standards for qualitative (and quantitative) research: A prolegomenon. Educational Researcher, 19(5), 2-9.
Kazdin, A. E. (1977). Artifact, bias, and complexity of assessment: The ABCs of reliability. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 141-150.
Kilpatrick, J. (2003). Leave no teacher behind. Education News.org. http://www.ednews.org/articles/leave-no-teacher-behind-.html
Knopf, H. T., & Brown, H. M. (2009). Lap reading with kindergartners: Nurturing literacy skills and so much more. Young Children, 64(5), 80-87.
Korat, O. (2010). Reading electronic books as a support for vocabulary, story comprehension and word reading in kindergarten and first grade. Computers & Education, 55(1), 24-31.
Lamal, P. A. (1990). On the importance of replication. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5(4), 31-35.
Martella, R. C., Nelson, R., & Marchand-Martella, N. E. (1999). Research methods: Learning to become a critical research consumer. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Meier, K. (1997, February 7). The value of replicating social-science research. The Chronicle of Higher Education, p. B7.
Moats, L. C. (1999). Teaching reading is rocket science: What expert teachers of reading should know and be able to do. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers.
National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
National Research Council. (2002). Scientific research in education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Neuliep, J. W., & Crandall, R. (1993a). Everyone was wrong: There are lots of replications out there. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 8(6), 1-8.
Neuliep, J. W., & Crandall, R. (1993b). Reviewer bias against replication research. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 8(6), 21-29.
Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Popper, K. R. (1957/1996). Philosophy of science: A personal report. In S. Sarkar (Ed.), Science and philosophy in the twentieth century: Decline and obsolescence of logical empiricism (pp. 237-273). New York: Garland. (Reprinted from British philosophy in the mid-century: A Cambridge symposium, pp. 155-191, by C.A. Mace, Ed., 1957, New York: Macmillan Norwood Russe)
Potter, W. J. (1996). An analysis of thinking and research about qualitative methods. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Park, R. (2000). Voodoo science: The road from foolishness to fraud. New York: Oxford.
Rosenthal, R. (1990). Replication in behavioral research. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5(4), 1-30.
Rosnow, R. L., & Rosenthal, R. (1976). The volunteer subject revisited. Australian Journal of Psychology, 28, 97-108.
Sagan, C. (1996). The demon-haunted world: Science as a candle in the dark. New York: Ballantine Books.
Shaver, J. P. (1983). The verification of independent variables in teaching methods research. Educational Research, 12, 3-9.
Silverman, D. (1993). Interpreting qualitative data: Methods for analysing talk, text, and interaction. London, Sage.
Simmons, D. C., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2003). A consumer’s guide to evaluating a core reading program grades K-3: A critical elements analysis. Eugene, OR: Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement.
Slavin, R. E. (2003, February). A reader’s guide to scientifically based research: Learning how to assess the validity of education research is vital for creating effective, sustained reform. Educational Leadership, 12-16.
Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). National Research Council. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Spear-Swerling, L., Brucker, P. O., & Alfano, M. P. (2010). Relationships between sixth-graders' reading comprehension and two different measures of print exposure. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 23(1), 73-96.
Stanovich, K. E. (1993/1994). Romance and reality. The Reading Teacher, 47, 280-291.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Tawney, J. W., & Gast, D. L. (1984). Single subject research in special education. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
The 1999 Omnibus Appropriations Bill. (1998). The Reading Excellence Act, pp. 956-1007. http://www.nrrf.org/essay_ReadingExcel.html
U.S. Department of Education. (2002). No Child Left Behind Act, 2001. http://www.ed.gov/nclb/landing.jhtmlhttp://www.ed.gov/nclb/landing.jhtml
Waldron, C. H. (2008). If I Read Better, Will I Score Higher?: The relationship between oral reading fluency instruction and standardized reading achievement test outcomes. Unpublished master’s thesis, Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
Wills, H., Kamps, D., Abbott, M., Bannister, H., & Kaufman, J. (2010). Classroom observations and effects of reading interventions for students at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 35(2), 103-119.
Course content is updated every three years. Due to this update timeline, some URL links may no longer be active or may have changed. Please type the title of the organization into the command line of any Internet browser search window and you will be able to find whether the URL link is still active or any new link to the corresponding organization's web home page.
Updated 9/15/11 JN