Reading Fundamentals #2:
Laying the Foundation for Effective Reading Instruction
Instructor Name: Mick R. Jackson MS/ED
Office Hours: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday
Address: Virtual Education Software
16201 E Indiana Ave, Suite 1450
Spokane, WA 99216
The federal legislation enacted in 2001 mandates the use of scientifically-based research in programs receiving federal funding that deal with remedial readers. The concept of scientifically-validated methods is so prevalent in the legislation that it appears 110 times in these documents. This three-course Reading Fundamentals series will help improve your knowledge of science and the scientific process suggested for development of remedial reading programs. This knowledge will make you a more informed consumer and an even better advocate for students.
The purpose of this second course in this three-course series is to lay the foundation for effective reading instruction. As part of this course, you will learn about the elements of effective instruction. It is important that all teachers have a firm understanding of effective instructional procedures. Teachers benefit, and more importantly, students benefit, both in terms of their behavior and their academic performance, from effective instruction. Further, you will learn about the importance of reading instruction and read some sobering statistics on reading performance in this country and what happens when individuals are not proficient in reading.
This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer. Technical support information can be found, in the Help section of your course.
Reading Fundamentals #2: Laying the Foundation for Effective Reading Instruction
Authors: Nancy Marchand-Martella, Ph.D.
Publisher: Virtual Education Software, inc. 2004, Revised 2010
Instructor: Mick Jackson MS/ED
Academic Integrity Statement
The structure and format of most distance-learning courses presumes a high level of personal and academic integrity in completion and submission of coursework. Individuals enrolled in a distance-learning course are expected to adhere to the following standards of academic conduct.
Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed in part or in whole to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.
Aiding Honesty in Others
The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.
Violations of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.
Level of Application
This course is designed to be an informational course with application to educational settings. The curriculum suggestions and teaching strategies explained here were designed to be used for the teaching and remediation of students in kindergarten through sixth grade and an age range from approximately five years to twelve years of age. Some alterations may be needed if working with specific populations such as gifted, ESL, or special education.
1. Describe the elements of effective instruction.
2. Discuss the importance of reading instruction.
3. Describe the reading theories/models.
4. Differentiate between basal (core/comprehensive), supplemental, and intervention reading programs.
5. Provide information on reading psychology and development.
6. Trace the evolution of reading from Adams (1990) to Snow et al. (NRC, 1998) to the National Reading Panel Report (2000) and Put Reading First (2001).
7. Describe key legislation that affects reading.
8. Discuss what key legislation means to educators.
Reading is the cornerstone of an effective education. Without this skill we are limited in so many important life activities. We cannot access the newspaper, read the directions of a new recipe, enjoy a favorite novel, or read a prescription bottle of medication. The list goes on and on. Reading is tied to all other academic areas. Without reading, mathematics, writing, spelling, and the content areas such as science and social studies are difficult, if not impossible, to participate in or complete at an adequate level. College becomes out of the question and many jobs are simply out of reach because they require some basic level of reading or other skill that hinges on reading. An inability to read renders these individuals almost powerless in our society.
Further, a report of the Commission on Reading (1985) entitled Becoming a Nation of Readers noted the following, almost 20 years ago:
Economics research has established that schooling is an investment that forms human capital—that is, knowledge, skill, and problem-solving ability that have enduring value. While a country receives a good investment in education at all levels from nursery school and kindergarten through college, the research reveals that the returns are highest from the early years of schooling when children are first learning to read. (p. 1)
Unfortunately, a vast number of our students are failing to learn to read in our schools in grades K-3. The problem does not go away over time. In fact, the majority of these students continue a trend of failure in reading. This problem has not gone without notice. Reading initiatives such as the federal legislation of 2001 have tried to tackle this critical academic area “head on” by focusing on scientifically-based reading programs. Further, five essential components of effective reading programs have been identified and are key focal areas of the 2001 federal legislation. These areas are phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension. Research has shown that students need to master skills in these areas to become proficient readers. The cry now heard is “every child a reader by the end of third grade.” It’s about time.
As a student you will be expected to...
· Complete all 4 information chapters covering The Foundations for Effective Reading Instruction, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.
· Complete all 4 chapter examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.
· Complete a review of any chapter on which your examination score was below 70%.
· Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 70% (maximum of 3 attempts).
· Complete all course journal article and essay writing assignments with the minimum word count shown for each writing assignment.
· Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.
Chapter 1: Importance of Effective Instruction
This course will shed some light on effective instruction by breaking it down into parts. Figure I.1 shows how three critical elements of effective instruction lead to student success in the classroom. These include: (a) the organization of instruction; (b) curriculum design; and (c) instructional delivery as noted by Carnine, Silbert, & Kame’enui (1997).
When we look at how reading curricula or programs are designed, we must examine six curricular variables. These variables include: (a) specifying objectives, (b) devising strategies, (c) developing teaching procedures, (d) selecting examples, (e) sequencing skills, and (f) providing practice and review.
In addition to examining the organization of instruction and how our reading program is designed, we should view our instructional delivery techniques. That is, how do we actually provide instruction to our students? Remember, we can have good classroom organization and an effective reading program, but if we do not have the skills to deliver the program in an effective manner, we will struggle to teach our students at high levels. Instructional delivery techniques include: (a) small group instruction, (b) unison oral responding, (c) appropriate instructions, (d) signals, (e) pacing, (f) monitoring, (g) diagnosis and correction, (h) teaching to criterion, and (i) motivation.
Chapter 2: An Overview of Reading Instruction
This chapter details staggering statistics that describe the failure we see in our society. These statistics note the progression of failure if we do not teach reading effectively and early in school. Further, phenomena such as reification and the Matthew Effects are described.
The chapter describes various reading models. A continuum of effective instructional practices as they relate to reading is proposed to help draw light on using both approaches—but it is a matter of when each should be done. Additionally, information is provided on basal (core/comprehensive) reading programs as well as on supplemental and intervention programs, given their emphasis in our schools.
The chapter also provides important information on reading psychology and development. It is important for teachers to have this background to be better prepared to provide instruction in the classroom so that every child learns to read at a proficient level.
Chapter 3: The Evolution of Reading
Chapter 3 details the two reports that set the stage for the National Reading Panel (2000) report. These included the Adams (1990) report and the Snow et al. (NRC, 1998) report.
In 1997, Congress asked the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), in concert with the Secretary of Education, to convene a national panel to assess the effectiveness of various approaches to teaching children to read. That report is discussed in this chapter.
Chapter 4: Key Legislation Affecting Reading Instruction
In 1998, Congress enacted the Reading Excellence Act (REA), an amendment to Title II of ESEA. This Act paved the way for classroom instruction using scientifically-based reading research to help all children learn to read by the end of the third grade. Chapter 4 describes this important amendment to ESEA. It also discusses the changes that were implemented when the No Child Left Behind Act (NLCB) was signed into law in 2002 and gives details about the act.
At the end of each course chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score. After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access. The average from your exam scores will be printed on your certificate. However, this is not your final grade since your required writing assignments have not been reviewed. Exceptionally written or poorly written required writing assignments, or violation of the academic integrity policy in the course syllabus, will affect your grade. As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.
This course has two required writing components.
To save your essays:
When you select the question or article you wish to write on, simple text or text edit will
automatically be launched. When you are finished, simply click SAVE.
You must SAVE before you write another essay or move on to another part of the course.
1) Essay Requirement: Critical Thinking Questions
There is a Critical Thinking Question for each chapter. You will do research on the question and write a brief essay relating it to the course content (and your personal experiences when possible). To view the questions, click on REQUIRED ESSAY and choose the Critical Thinking Question that you would like to complete; this will bring up a screen where you may enter your essay. You must write a minimum of 500 words per essay.
You must SAVE before you write another essay or move on to another part of the course.
2) Essay Requirement: Journal Articles
This task requires you to write a review of three journal articles of your choice on a topic related to this course. You may choose your topic by entering the Key Words (click on the Key Words button) into a search engine of your choice (Google, Dogpile, Yahoo, etc.). Choose three relevant articles and write a 200-word review of each. You may also access the ERIC system and choose a related topic from a journal listed in that system. Or you can access www.scholar.google.com or www.findarticles.com .Write a critical summary of the information given in each article, explaining how the information relates to, supports, or refutes information given in this course. Conclude your paper with your thoughts and impressions. (200 words per journal article minimum, 400 words maximum.) Be sure to provide the journal name, volume, date, and any other critical information to allow the instructor to access and review that article.
To write your essays, click on REQUIRED ESSAY and choose the Journal Article that you would like to complete; this will bring up a screen where you can write your review. When you are ready to stop, click SAVE. You may go back at any point to edit your essays. For more information on the features of this assignment, please consult the HELP menu.
You must SAVE before you write another essay or move on to another part of the course.
Reading Fundamentals #2: Laying the Foundation for Effective Reading Instruction has been developed by a team of professionals with educational backgrounds in the areas of clinical psychology, direct reading, and phonetic instructional practices. Mick Jackson, the instructor of record, is a Behavioral Intervention Specialist with a Master's Degree in Special Education with a focus on Behavioral Theory and a minor in Reading Remediation. He has 15 years’ combined experience in self-contained special education classrooms, resource rooms, and a hospital day treatment setting. He has conducted oral seminars, presenting to school districts and teacher groups, as well as at educational conferences.
Contacting the Instructor
If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.
If you need personal assistance then email firstname.lastname@example.org or call (509) 891-7219. When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call.
Minimum Computer Requirements
Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.
Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted, and how to submit your completed information.
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Course content is updated every three years. Due to this update timeline, some URL links may no longer be active or may have changed. Please type the title of the organization into the command line of any Internet browser search window and you will be able to find whether the URL link is still active or any new link to the corresponding organization's web home page.
Updated 9/15/11 JN