Reading Fundamentals #3:

The Elements of Effective Reading Instruction & Assessment

 

Instructor Name:          Dr. A.N. (Bob) Pillay

Facilitator:                    Mick R. Jackson MS/ED

Phone:                         509-891-7219

Office Hours:              8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday

Email:                          mick@virtualeduc.com

Fax:                             509-926-7768

Address:                      Virtual Education Software

                                    16201 E Indiana Ave, Suite 1450

                                    Spokane, WA 99216

Technical Support:       support@virtualeduc.com

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Introduction

This course will focus on learning to read, reading to learn, and an introduction to reading assessment. As part of these two key areas of reading instruction, the five elements of effective reading instruction will be highlighted, including definitions, implications for instruction, and future directions. These five elements include instruction in: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension. Further, we discuss information on teacher preparation in learning about comprehension strategy instruction and reading instruction, as well as how to integrate computer technology into the classroom. Additionally, the course will provide information on important assessment terms and definitions and will explore how reading assessment fits within federal mandated programs, including the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts. This analysis includes specific recommendations for understanding student reading needs using screening, diagnostic, and progress-monitoring assessments. Finally, the course describes how teachers can conduct and use pivotal curriculum-based measurement procedures in their classrooms.

 

This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer.  Technical support information can be found in the Help section of your course.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Course Materials (Online)

Title:                Reading Fundamentals #3: The Elements of Effective Reading Instruction & Assessment

Authors:                       Greg Benner, Ph.D., Nancy Marchand-Martella, Ph.D., and Ronald Martella, Ph.D.

Publisher:         Virtual Education Software, inc. 2004, Revised 2010, Revised 2014

Instructor:        Dr. A.N. (Bob) Pillay

Facilitator:        Mick R. Jackson MS/ED

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Academic Integrity Statement

The structure and format of most distance-learning courses presumes a high level of personal and academic integrity in completion and submission of coursework. Individuals enrolled in a distance-learning course are expected to adhere to the following standards of academic conduct.

 

Academic Work

Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed in part or in whole to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.

 

Aiding Honesty in Others

The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.

 

Violations of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Level of Application

This course is designed to be an informational course with application to reading programs for kindergarten through third grade. The course is designed for both regular and exceptional education teachers and support staff who teach reading and reading remediation to public and private school students. This is a three-course series and teacher should complete the entire three-course series before developing and implementing a phonetically-based reading program in their school or classroom.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Course Objectives: 

1.      Describe learning to read and reading to learn.

2.      Discuss important aspects of phonemic awareness instruction.

3.      Identify important aspects of phonics instruction.

4.      Describe important aspects of fluency instruction.

5.      Note important aspects of vocabulary instruction.

6.      Discuss important aspects of text comprehension.

7.      Describe various aspects of teacher preparation and education in comprehension strategy instruction and reading instruction.

8.      Note how computer technology can be used in reading instruction.

9.      Provide details on the Consumer’s Guide to Evaluating a Core Reading Program by Simmons and Kame’enui (2003) and the Planning and Evaluation Tool for Effective Schoolwide Reading Programs by Kame’enui and Simmons (2000).

10.  Describe accomplishments that can be expected for students in grades K-3.

11.  Discuss important aspects of adolescent literacy instruction and assessment (grades 4-12).

12.  Discuss important aspects of word study and motivation.

13.  Describe reading remediation guidelines and interventions for students in grades K-12.

14.  Describe how to incorporate tutoring as an effective reading intervention.

15.  Define important assessment terms.

16.  Discuss technical quality, test interpretation, and assessment purposes.

17.  Note how assessment fits within federally mandated programs, including Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts.

18.  Apply response to intervention (RTI) systems to understand student reading needs, including screening, diagnosing where to focus instruction, and monitoring student reading progress.

19.  Discuss important ways to link assessment with instruction.

20.  Detail the use of data-based decision making in classroom settings, with particular focus on various types of curriculum-based measurement procedures.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Course Description

The Reading Fundamentals program focuses on implementing proven methods of early reading instruction in classrooms. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 added two new reading programs to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act: Reading First and Early Reading First--both under the Bush Administration. Under the Obama Administration, funds are accessed under the Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy program. Funding is focused on advancing literacy skills for children from birth to grade 12. An emphasis is placed on research-based classroom instruction and assessment and targeted interventions for those reading below grade level. Race to the Top is another initiative offering funding. Four educational reform areas are included: quality standards and assessments, data system to improve instruction, great teachers and principals, and turnaround of lowest-achieving schools.

 

This course will focus on learning to read and reading to learn. As part of these two key areas of reading instruction, prereading skills for preschoolers will be briefly described. Additionally, the five elements of effective reading instruction will be highlighted, including definitions, implications for instruction, and future directions. These five elements include instruction in: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension (grades K-3); and word study, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and motivation (grades 4-12).

 

Further, we discuss information on teacher preparation in learning about comprehension strategy instruction and reading instruction and how to integrate computer technology into the classroom. Additionally, this course will describe the Consumer’s Guide to Evaluating a Core Reading Program by Simmons and Kame’enui (2006), a well-respected document for evaluating programs based on the National Reading Panel Report (NICHD, 2000) and the Planning and Evaluation Tool for Effective Schoolwide Reading Programs by Kame’enui and Simmons (2003). Finally, this course will highlight the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and offer recommendations on increasing text complexity and the use of close reading in our schools, reading accomplishments by grade level, reading interventions for students in Grades K-12, and the use of tutoring programs.

 

We conclude with information on important assessment terms and definitions. Further, we provide information on how reading assessment fits within the Reading First Program. We include detailed information on the Analysis of Reading Assessment Instruments for K-3 (Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement, 2002) completed by key leaders in the assessment field. This analysis includes specific recommendations on 29 reading assessments. We describe how response to intervention (RTI) is used to understand student reading needs, including screening, diagnosing where to focus instruction, and monitoring student reading progress over time. We demonstrate how teachers can link assessment with instruction and data-based decision making in classroom settings, with particular focus on pivotal curriculum-based measurement procedures.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Student Expectations 

As a student you will be expected to...

·         Complete all 6 information chapters covering The Elements of Effective Reading Instruction & Assessment, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.

·         Complete all 6 chapter examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.

·         Complete a review of any chapter on which your examination score was below 70%.

·         Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 70% (maximum of three attempts). *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.

·         Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Course Overview
Chapter 1: Introduction to Reading Instruction
The purpose of this course is to consider what we can do in school to promote effective reading instruction. In this chapter we focus on three elements of effective reading instruction. These are phonemic awareness, phonics, and fluency building. We have labeled these elements under the heading Learning to Read. Learning to Read emphasizes decoding skills.

 

Chapter 2:  Reading to Learn & Other Important Areas of Reading Instruction (K-3)

In this chapter, we focus on reading to learn or comprehension of text materials from kindergarten to third grade. Two elements of effective reading instruction must be included to improve reading comprehension in the classroom. These are vocabulary instruction and text comprehension instruction.

 
Chapter 3:  Further Examination of Reading Programs & Skills
In this chapter, we provide further examination of reading programs and skills. We discuss how to evaluate core or comprehensive reading programs using the Consumer’s Guide developed by Simmons and Kame’enui (2003). We also discuss the Planning and Evaluation Tool (Kame’enui & Simmons, 2000) that is used to assess schoolwide reading programs. We conclude by discussing the important accomplishments by grade level as identified by Armbruster, Lehr, and Osborn (2003) in their booklet, A Child Becomes a Reader: Proven Ideas From Research for Parents: Kindergarten Through Grade 3.

 

Chapter 4: Reading Remediation

In this chapter, we will describe interventions for students in Grades K-12. We offer important guidelines on remedial reading programs. We focus on the importance of tutorial programs in schools. Tutorial programs are considered one of the best ways of providing reading instruction to struggling readers.

 

Chapter 5: Best Practices for Reading Assessment

This chapter describes relevant assessment terms and purposes. It is critical to understand the types of tests available to teachers and what information can be gathered from them. It also provides important information on how assessment fits within Reading First. Additionally, this chapter details the findings of the Reading First Assessment Committee. It also provides important information on how assessment currently fits within the Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy program. Additionally, this chapter details the best practices from the Reading First Assessment Committee, Florida Center for Reading Research, and National Center for Intensive Intervention (NCII). Response to intervention (RTI) practices for understanding the literacy needs of students through screening, diagnostic, and progress monitoring assessments are detailed.

 

Chapter 6: Linking Assessment With Instruction

This chapter lays out how to link reading assessment with instruction, meaning how to use assessment information to meet individual student literacy needs every day. It describes the ever-important link between assessment and instruction and how to problem solve when student literacy needs are not being met. An outcomes-driven model is discussed. Additionally, the chapter explores data tracking and data-based decision making, with particular focus on CBM and its derivatives (i.e., measures not based directly on a particular curriculum, but integrating CBM elements such as frequent progress monitoring). It discusses the DIBELS as well as teacher-developed CBM practices that can serve as criterion-referenced tests when student data are compared to performance criteria. We highlight best practices for understanding the reading comprehension and motivation of striving readers (grades 4-12).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Examinations

At the end of each chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score.  After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access.  Your final grade for the course will be determined by calculating an average score of all exams.  This score will be printed on your final certificate.  As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
Facilitator Description

Reading Fundamentals #3: The Elements of Effective Reading Instruction & Assessment has been developed by a team of professionals with educational backgrounds in the areas of clinical psychology, direct reading, and phonetic instructional practices. Mick Jackson, the instructor of record, is a Behavioral Intervention Specialist with a Master's Degree in Special Education and Behavioral Theory and a minor in Reading Remediation.  He has 15 years’ combined experience in self-contained special education classrooms, resource rooms, and a hospital day treatment setting.  He has conducted oral seminars, presenting to school districts, teacher groups, and at educational conferences.  Please contact Professor Jackson if you have course content or examination questions.

 

Instructor Description

Dr. A.N. Bob Pillay is a doctoral-level professor who has been teaching in the field of exceptional education, curriculum approaches, English, reading and mathematics for the past 30 years. Dr. Pillay has received numerous national and international awards for his research in these fields. He has headed boards and committees in more than five countries, including Australia, the Philippines and Southeast Asia, to develop and strengthen curriculum approaches and special services. Dr. Pillay has extensive knowledge of education issues in the U.S. due to his doctoral studies at the University of Louisville. He was the Founding Director of the Learning Improvement Centre, which is a training facility for teachers, and was a service provider to students with learning problems. He is currently a retired Senior Lecturer and Senior Fellow in Special Education at the University of Melbourne.  Please contact Professor Jackson if you have course content or examination questions.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Contacting the Facilitator

You may contact the facilitator by emailing Professor Jackson at mick@virtualeduc.com or calling him at 800-313-6744 Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. PST. Phone messages will be answered within 24 hours. Phone conferences will be limited to ten minutes per student, per day, given that this is a self-paced instructional program. Please do not contact the instructor about technical problems, course glitches, or other issues that involve the operation of the course.

 

Technical Questions

If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.

 

If you need personal assistance then email support@virtualeduc.com or call (509) 891-7219.  When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call. 

                                                        

Minimum Computer Requirements

Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted and how to submit your completed information. The addendum will also note any additional course assignments that you may be required to complete that are not listed in this syllabus.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Bibliography (Suggested Readings)

 

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Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2006a). A child becomes a reader: Proven ideas from research for parents: Birth to preschool (3rd ed.). Jessup, MD: National Institute for Literacy.

 

Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2006b). A child becomes a reader: Proven ideas from research for parents: Kindergarten to grade 3 (3rd ed.). Jessup, MD: National Institute for Literacy.

 

Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2006c). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read: Kindergarten through grade 3 (3rd ed.). Jessup, MD: National Institute for Literacy.

 

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Boardman, A. G., Roberts, G., Vaughn, S., Wexler, J., Murray, C. S., & Kosanovich, M. (2008). Effective instruction for adolescent struggling readers: A practice brief. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.

 

Bogdan, R. C., & Biklen, S. K. (1992) Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

 

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Chambless, D. L., & Ollendick, T. H. (2001). Empirically supported psychological interventions: Controversies and evidence. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 685-716. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.685

 

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Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2007). Responsiveness to intervention [Special issue].  Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5). Available at http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/TEC-vol.39no.52007.pdf

 

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Gersten, R., Compton, D., Connor, C. M., Dimino, J., Santoro, L., Linan-Thompson, S., & Tilly, W. D. (2008). Assisting students struggling with reading: Response to Intervention and multi-tier intervention for reading in the primary grades. A practice guide. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/publications/practiceguides/

 

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Korat, O. (2010). Reading electronic books as a support for vocabulary, story comprehension and word reading in kindergarten and first grade. Computers & Education, 55(1), 24-31. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2009.11.014

 

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Martella, R. C., Nelson, R., & Marchand-Martella, N. E. (1999). Research methods: Learning to become a critical research consumer. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

 

Meier, K. (1997, February 7). The value of replicating social-science research. Chronicle of Higher Education, p. B7.

 

Moats, L. C. (1999). Teaching reading is rocket science: What expert teachers of reading should know and be able to do. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers.

 

 

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National Research Council. (2002). Scientific research in education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

 

Neuliep, J. W., & Crandall, R. (1993a). Everyone was wrong: There are lots of replications out there. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 8(6), 1-8.

 

Neuliep, J. W., & Crandall, R. (1993b). Reviewer bias against replication research. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 8(6), 21-29.

 

Park, R. (2000). Voodoo science: The road from foolishness to fraud. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

 

Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

 

Popper, K. R. (1957/1996). Philosophy of science: A personal report. In S. Sarkar (Ed.), Science and philosophy in the twentieth century: Decline and obsolescence of logical empiricism (pp. 237-273). New York, NY: Garland. (Reprinted from British philosophy in the mid-century: A Cambridge symposium, pp. 155-191, by C.A. Mace, Ed., 1957, New York, NY: Macmillan Norwood Russe)

 

Potter, W. J. (1996). An analysis of thinking and research about qualitative methods. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

 

Rosenthal, R. (1990). Replication in behavioral research. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5(4), 1-30.

 

Rosnow, R. L., & Rosenthal, R. (1976). The volunteer subject revisited. Australian Journal of Psychology, 28, 97-108. doi:10.1080/00049537608255268

 

Sagan, C. (1996). The demon-haunted world: Science as a candle in the dark. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

 

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Simmons, D. C., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2003). A consumer’s guide to evaluating a core reading program grades K-3: A critical elements analysis. Eugene, OR: Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement.

 

Slavin, R. E. (2003, February). A reader’s guide to scientifically based research: Learning how to assess the validity of education research is vital for creating effective, sustained reform. Educational Leadership, 12-16. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/feb03/vol60/num05/A-Reader's-Guide-to-Scientifically-Based-Research.aspx

 

Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

 

Spear-Swerling, L., Brucker, P. O., & Alfano, M. P. (2010). Relationships between sixth-graders’ reading comprehension and two different measures of print exposure. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 23(1), 73-96. doi:10.1007/s11145-008-9152-8

 

Stanovich, K. E. (1993/1994). Romance and reality. The Reading Teacher, 47, 280-291. Retrieved from http://www.keithstanovich.com/Site/Research_on_Reading_files/RdTch93.pdf

 

Stecker, P. M., & Lemke, E. S. (2005). Advanced applications of CBM in Reading: Instructional decision-making strategies manual. National Center on Student Progress Monitoring. Retrieved from http://www.studentprogress.org/library/Training/CBMmath/AdvancedReading/AdvRdgManual-FORMATTEDSept29.pdf

 

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

 

Sweet, R. W., Jr. (1998). The 1999 omnibus appropriations bill. In The reading excellence act: A breakthrough for reading teacher training (pp. 956-1007). Retrieved from http://www.nrrf.org/learning/the
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Tawney, J. W., & Gast, D. L. (1984). Single subject research in special education. Columbus, OH: Merrill.

 

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Waldron, C. H. (2008). If I read better, will I score higher?: The relationship between oral reading fluency instruction and standardized reading achievement test outcomes. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.

 

Wills, H., Kamps, D., Abbott, M., Bannister, H., & Kaufman, J. (2010). Classroom observations and effects of reading interventions for students at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 35(2), 103-119. doi:10.1177/1063426613476092

 

Course content is updated every three years. Due to this update timeline, some URL links may no longer be active or may have changed. Please type the title of the organization into the command line of any Internet browser search window and you will be able to find whether the URL link is still active or any new link to the corresponding organization's web home page.

 

1/23/15 JN