Response to Intervention:

Practical Information for the Classroom Teacher

 

Instructor Name:          Dr. Karen Lea

Phone:                         509-891-7219

Office Hours:               8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday

Email:                          karen_lea@virtualeduc.com

Address:                      Virtual Education Software

                                    16201 E Indiana Ave, Suite 1450

                                    Spokane, WA 99216

Technical Support:       support@virtualeduc.com        

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Introduction

Welcome to Response to Intervention: Practical Information for the Classroom Teacher, a course that introduces the Response to Intervention process for special education teachers, general classroom teachers, parents, and related professionals.

 

This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer.  Technical support information can be found in the Help section of your course.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Course Materials (Online)

Title:                Response to Intervention: Practical Information for the Classroom Teacher

Instructor:        Dr. Karen Lea

Publisher:         Virtual Education Software, inc. 2017, Revised 2018

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Academic Integrity Statement

The structure and format of most distance-learning courses presume a high level of personal and academic integrity in completion and submission of coursework. Individuals enrolled in a distance-learning course are expected to adhere to the following standards of academic conduct.

 

Academic Work

Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed, in part or in whole, to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.

 

Aiding Honesty in Others

The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.

 

Violations of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Expected Learning Outcomes

After taking this course, participants will demonstrate their ability to:

·         Implement a systematic process, RTI, to ensure that every child learns

·         Apply the essential elements of RTI

·         Navigate through each tier of the RTI

·         Apply the RTI process in the classroom

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Course Description

As educators, you have probably heard the term RTI, or Response to Intervention. RTI is a process that schools can and should use to help students who are struggling with academics or behavior. Even though RTI is primarily linked to special education and the early identification of learning problems, RTI is not just for students in special education. RTI is for all students and is based on the premise that a student might be struggling because of instruction or the curriculum in either a past or a current classroom. Every teacher will have students who are struggling, and RTI is a valuable tool for easing that struggle. So welcome to the class on Response to Intervention, where you will learn what RTI is and how to use it in your classroom.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Student Expectations 

As a student you will be expected to:

·         Complete all four information sections showing a competent understanding of the material presented in each section.

·         Complete all four section examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.  You must obtain an overall score of 70% or higher, with no individual exam score below 50%, and successfully complete ALL writing assignments to pass this course. *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.

·         Complete a review of any section on which your examination score was below 50%.

·         Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 50%, making sure to also be achieving an overall exam score of a minimum 70% (maximum of three attempts). *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.

·         Complete all course journal article and essay writing assignments with the minimum word count shown for each writing assignment.

·         Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Course Overview

Chapter 1:  RTI Tiers

In this first section of the course, we will look at the history of RTI or Response to Intervention so that you’ll understand the significance of this process. We will also look at what RTI is, the three tiers of a typical RTI, the essential elements of RTI, two basic models, how to talk with families about RTI, and the benefits of RTI. Your goal, or objective, for this section is to be able to explain what a Response to Intervention is and why it is used.

 

Chapter 2:  RTI Tier 1

Response to Intervention (RTI) is a valuable tool for all teachers, at all levels, to ensure that students are receiving the instruction they need to be successful in the classroom. In the RTI approach, struggling students’ skills and behavior are monitored to determine whether they show adequate growth—referred to as responsiveness—following the implementation of high-quality instruction. Students who do not respond adequately to research-validated instruction in the general education classroom are provided with increasingly intensive interventions. Students’ progress in skill areas of concern is monitored frequently (e.g., weekly), and the data collected inform subsequent decisions about whether a student is either appropriately responsive or needs still more intensive instruction. Although RTI is used primarily to enhance academics, which will be the primary focus of this course, RTI is also used for behavior. Response to Intervention starts with universal screening and is typically implemented in three tiers. Tier 1 is the focus of this section of the course. Tier 1 relies heavily on the classroom teacher, and the goal is to ensure that the needs of at least 80% of the students are met before implementing Tier 2.

 

Chapter 3:  RTI Tier 2

Greulich et al. (2014) found that the need for flexibility when using RTI starts in Tier 1; they advocate for rapidly moving students who are persistently inadequate responders in Tier 1 to Tier 2, where they will receive more intensive interventions. Tier 2 is the focus of this section of the course, which also describes using the RTI process with Gifted and Talented students and in grade levels above elementary school. Understanding how the process works with Gifted and Talented and in the middle and high school levels is critical for a complete understanding of RTI.

 

Chapter 4:  RTI Tier 3

All Tiers include high-quality instruction, frequent progress monitoring, and data-based decision making. Together, these elements create a strong instructional foundation for all students: Struggling students receive the additional instructional support they need to catch up with their peers and to succeed in the general education classroom, and students with specific learning disabilities can be identified in the early grades. If it’s to be successful, the RTI approach must be implemented in a context of shared responsibility and increased accountability for student learning. These goals can be achieved through greater collaboration among school leaders, teachers, and parents. In particular, the success of RTI depends on the ability of general educators and special educators to work closely together. Tier 3 is considered a level of tertiary or intensive individualized intervention. Students whose progress is still insufficient in Tier 2 receive even more intensive and individualized instruction. Such instruction is provided through special education services. Tier 3 is the focus of this section of the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Examinations

At the end of each course section, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score.  After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access.  The average from your exam scores will be printed on your certificate.  However, this is not your final grade since your required writing assignments have not been reviewed.  Exceptionally written or poorly written required writing assignments, or violation of the academic integrity policy in the course syllabus, will affect your grade.  As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Writing Assignments

All assignments are reviewed and may impact your final grade.  Exceptionally or poorly written assignments, or violation of the Academic Integrity Policy (see course syllabus for policy), will affect your grade. Fifty percent of your grade is determined by your writing assignments, and your overall exam score determines the other fifty percent.  Refer to the Essay Grading Guidelines which were sent as an attachment with your original course link. You should also refer to the Course Syllabus Addendum which was sent as an attachment with your original course link, to determine if you have any writing assignments in addition to the Critical Thinking Questions (CTQ) and Journal Article Summations (JAS).  If you do, the Essay Grading Guidelines will also apply.

 

Your writing assignments must meet the minimum word count and are not to include the question or your final citations as part of your word count.  In other words, the question and citations are not to be used as a means to meet the minimum word count.

 

Critical Thinking Questions

There are four CTQs that you are required to complete. You  will need to write a minimum of 500 words (maximum 1,000) per essay. You  should explain how the information that you gained from the course will be applied and clearly convey a strong understanding of the course content as it relates to each CTQ.  To view the questions, click on REQUIRED ESSAY and choose the CTQ that you are ready to complete; this will bring up a screen where you may enter your essay.  Prior to course submission, you may go back at any point to edit your essay, but you must be certain to click SAVE once you are done with your edits.

 

You must click SAVE before you write another essay or move on to another part of the course.

Journal Article Summations

You are required to write, in your own words, a summary on a total of three peer-reviewed or scholarly journal articles (one article per JAS), written by an author with a Ph.D., Ed.D. or similar, on the topic outlined within each JAS section in the “Required Essays” portion of the course  (blogs, abstracts, news articles or similar are not acceptable). Your article choice must relate specifically to the discussion topic listed in each individual JAS. You will choose a total of three relevant articles (one article per JAS) and write a thorough summary of the information presented in each article (you must write a minimum of  200 words with a 400 word maximum per JAS). Be sure to provide the URL or the journal name, volume, date, and any other critical information to allow the facilitator to access and review each article. 

 

To write your summary, click on REQUIRED ESSAYS and choose the JAS that you would like to complete. A writing program will automatically launch where you can write your summary. When you are ready to stop, click SAVE.  Prior to course submission you may go back at any point to edit your summaries but you must be certain to click SAVE once you are done with your edits. For more information on the features of this assignment, please consult the HELP menu.

You must click SAVE before you write another summary or move on to another part of the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Instructor Description

Karen Lea holds a Ph.D. in education. Dr. Lea has fifteen years’ experience teaching at the K-12 level and another fourteen years’ experience teaching education courses at the undergraduate and post-graduate level. Currently she is a coordinator for a cadre of instructional developers and project manager for aerospace online training. Dr. Lea has been professionally published over fifteen times and has served on over a dozen panels and boards, including serving on the NCATE (CAEP) Board of Examiners.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Contacting the Instructor

You may contact the instructor by emailing Karen Lea at karen_lea@virtualeduc.com or calling him at (509) 891-7219 Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. PST. Phone messages will be answered within 24 hours. Phone conferences will be limited to ten minutes per student, per day, given that this is a self-paced instructional program. Please do not contact the instructor about technical problems, course glitches, or other issues that involve the operation of the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Technical Questions

If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.

 

If you need personal assistance then email support@virtualeduc.com or call (509) 891-7219.  When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call. 

                                                               

Minimum Computer Requirements

Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.

 

Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted and how to submit your completed information. The addendum will also note any additional course assignments that you may be required to complete that are not listed in this syllabus.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Bibliography (Suggested Readings)

 

Bowman, D. (n.d.). The five best ways to build – and lose – trust in the workplace. TTG Consultants. Retrieved from: http://www.ttgconsultants.com/articles/trustworkforce.html

 

Cain, K., Compton, D. L., & Parilla, R. K. (Eds.). (2017). Theories of reading development. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamin.

 

Campbell School District. (2015). Tier II interventions for struggling students. Retrieved from http://www.csd.k12.wi.us/staff/tier2interventions.cfm

 

Castillo, J. M., Dedrick, R. F., Stockslager, K. M., March, A. L., Hines, C. V., & Tan, S. Y. (2015). Development and initial validation of a scale measuring the beliefs of educators regarding response to intervention. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 31(1), 1-30.

 

Center on Response to Intervention. (2015). Tiered instructions and interventions. American Institutes for Research. Retrieved from http://www.rti4success.org/video/tiered-instruction-and-interventions

 

Ciullo, S., Falcomata, T., & Vaughn, S. (2014). Teaching social studies to upper elementary students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 38(1), 15-26.

 

Clemens, N. H., Hagan-Burke, S., Luo, W., Caerda, C., Blakely, Al, Frosch, J., Gamez-Patience, B., and Jones, M. (2014). The predictive validity of a computer-adaptive assessment of kindergarten and first-grade reading skills. School Psychology Review, 44(1), 76-97.

 

Coleman, M. R., Buysse, V., & Neitzel, J. (2006). Recognition and response: An early intervening system for young children at-risk for learning disabilities. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, FPG Child Development Institute.

 

Davis, K. H. (2017). Teacher perceptions of Response to Intervention and its core components, and its implementation in reading in the primary grades. Theses and Dissertations. 256. http://csuepress.columbusstate.edu/theses_dissertations/256

 

Ehren, J. E., Deshler, D. D., & Graner, P. S. (2010). Using the content literacy continuum as a framework for implementing RTI in secondary schools. Theory Into Practice, 49, 315-322.

 

Escambia School District. (2015). Using the content literacy continuum as a framework for implementing RTI in secondary schools. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ900895

 

Esparza Brown, J., & Sanford, A. (March 2011). RTI for English language learners: Appropriately using screening and progress monitoring tools to improve instructional outcomes. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Response to Intervention.

 

Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2017).  Critique of the national evaluation of Response to Intervention: A case for simpler frameworks. Exceptional Children, 83(3), 255-268.

 

Gersten, R., Beckmann, S., Clarke, B., Foegen, A., Marsh, L., Star, J. R., & Witzel, B. (2009). Assisting students struggling with mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for elementary and middle schools. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/PracticeGuide/2

 

Gersten, R., Rolfhus, e., Clarks, B., Decker. L. E., Wilkins, C., and Dimino, J. (2015).  Intervention for first graders with limited number knowledge: Large-scale replication of a randomized controlled trial. American Educational Research Journal, 52(2), 15-25.

 

Glaser, J. E. (2013, September 16). Breaking the code of silence: Creating a trusting workplace. Huffpost: The blog. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/judith-e-glaser/breaking-the-code-of-sile_b_3936322.html

 

Godwin, A. (2015). How to solve your people problems: Dealing with your difficult relationships. Brentwood, TN: Rosenbaum.

 

Greulich, L., Al Otaiba, S., Schatschneider, C., Wanzek, J., Ortiz, M., & Wagner, R. (2014). Understanding inadequate response to first-grade multi-tier intervention: Nomothetic and ideographic perspectives. Learning Disability Quarterly, 37(4), 204-217.

 

Grisham-Brown, J., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2017). Blended practices for teaching young children in inclusive settings (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks.

 

High School Tiered Interventions Initiative. (2010). Tiered interventions in high schools: Using preliminary ‘lessons learned’ to guide ongoing discussion. Retrieved from http://www.rti4success.org/resource/tiered-interventions-high-schools-using-preliminary-lessons-learned-guide-ongoing

 

Jennings, M., McDowell, K. D., Carroll, J. A., & Bohn-Gettler, C. M. (2015). Applying a teacher-designed response to intervention to improve the reading among struggling third grade students. Open Communication Journal, 9, 23-33.

 

Johnson, E. S., & Boyd, L. (2012). Designing effective Tier 2 reading instruction in early elementary grades with limited resources. Intervention in School and Clinic, 48(4), 203-209.

 

Johnson, E. S., Carter, D. R., & Pool, J. L. (2012). Introduction to the special issue: The critical role of a strong tier 2 system. Intervention in School and Clinic, 48(4), 195-197.

 

Johnson, S. K., Parker, S. L., and Farah, Y. N. (2015). Providing services for students with gifts and talented within a response-to-intervention framework. Teaching Exceptional Children, 47(4), 226-233.

 

Kame’enui, E. J., Carnine, D. W., Dixon, R. C., Simmons, D. C., & Coyne, M. D. (2002). Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.

 

Kamphaus, R. W., Reynolds, C. R., Dever, B. V., Kettler, R. J., Glover, T. A., Albers, C. A., & Feeney-Kettler, K. A. (2014). Universal screening in educational settings: Evidence-based decision making for schools. School Psychology Book Series, 249-273. Washington D.C., US: American Psychological Association.

 

King, K. R., and Reschly, A. L. (2014). A comparison of screening instruments predictive validity of the BESS and BSC.  Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 32(9), 687-698.

 

Kovaleski, J. F., Roble, M., & Agne, M. (n.d.) The RTI data analysis teaming process. RTI Action Network. Retrieved from http://www.rtinetwork.org/essential/assessment/data-based/teamprocess

 

Kwok, A. P., & Lau, Al. (2015). An exploratory study on using the think-pair-share cooperative learning strategy.  Journal of Mathematical Sciences, 2, 22-28.

 

Larkin, M. J. (2016). Providing support for student independence through scaffolded instruction. Teaching Exceptional Children, 34(1), 30-34.

 

Leung, K. C. (2014). Preliminary empirical model of crucial determinants of best practice for peer tutoring on academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106, 5-15.

 

Margolis, H. (2012). Response to intervention: RTI’s linchpins. Reading Psychology, 33(1-2), 8-10.

 

National Association of State Directors of Special Education. (2009). Response to Intervention at the intersection of P-16 and Breaking Ranks. In the Pipeline: Coherent Connections for a Lifetime of Learning. Retrieved from http://www.ideapartnership.org/

 

National Center on Response to Intervention. (2013). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Response to Intervention.

 

National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center (2011; update 2012). Tool for tiered interventions and secondary transition planning for students with disabilities: 101.

 

Otaiba, S. A., Connor, C. M., Folsom, J. S., Wanzek, J., Greulich, L., Schatschneider, C., & Wagner, R. K. (2014). To wait in Tier 1 or intervene immediately: A randomized experiment examining first-grade response to intervention in reading. Exceptional Children, 81(1), 11-27.

 

Pieretti, R. A., & Roseberry-McKibbin, C. (2015). Assessment and intervention for English language learners with primary language impairment: Research-based best practices. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 37(2), 5-20.

 

Regan, K. S., Berkeley, S. L., Hughes, M., & Brady, K. K. (2015). Understanding practitioner perceptions of Responsiveness to Intervention.  Learning Disability Quarterly, 38(4), 5-15.

 

Rose, R. (2017). The administrative team’s role in one elementary school in implementing Response to Intervention (Master’s thesis). California State University. Retrieved from https://csusm-dspace.calstate.edu/bitstream/handle/10211.3/194738/RebeccaRose_Summer2017.pdf?sequence=3

 

Rowe, D. A., Mazzotti, V. L., & Sinclari, J. (2014). Strategies for teaching self-determination skills in conjunction with the common core. Intervention in School and Clinic, 50(3), 131-141.

 

Rowe, S. S., Witner, S., Cook, E., & daCruz, K. (2014). Teachers’ attitudes about using curriculum-based measurement in reading (CBM-R) for universal screening and progress monitoring. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 30(4), 305-337.

 

Samuels, C. A. (2011). RTI: An approach on the march. Education Week, 30(22), s2-s5.

 

Searle, J. (2016). What every school leader needs to know about RTI. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

 

Skelton, S. M. (2012). Culturally responsive Response to Intervention: Considerations and critical questions. North Central RTI Collaborative Learning Community. Retrieved from http://www.niusileadscape.org/docs/pl/culturally_responsive_response_to_intervention/activity1/RTI%20Academy%201%20Part%20Hand%20ver%201.1%20FINAL%20kak.pdf

 

Smith, A. (2014). Think aloud protocols: Viable for teaching, learning, and professional developing in interpreting. International Journal of Translation and Interpreting Research, 6(1), 128-143.

 

The IRIS Center for Training Enhancements. (2015). RTI Retrieved on 9MAY 2015 from http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module

 

VanDerHeyden, A. M. and Burns, M. K. (2010). Essentials of response to intervention.  New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

 

VanDerHeyden, A. M., Witt, J. C., & Gilbertson, D. A. (2007). Multi-Year evaluation of the effects of a Response to Intervention (RTI) model on identification of children for special education. Journal of School Psychology, 45, 225-256.

 

Werts, M. G., Carpenter, E. S., & Fewell, C. (2014). Barriers and benefits to response to intervention: Perceptions of special education teachers. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 33(2), 3-11.

 

Yssel, N., Adams, C., Clarke, L. S., and Jones, R. (2014). Applying an RTI model for students with learning disabilities who are gifted. Teaching Exceptional Children, 46(3), 42-52.

Course content is updated every three years. Due to this update timeline, some URL links may no longer be active or may have changed. Please type the title of the organization into the command line of any Internet browser search window and you will be able to find whether the URL link is still active or any new link to the corresponding organization's web home page.

 

9/13//18 JN