Reading & Writing in Content Area
Instructor Name: Dr. Pamela Bernards
Office Hours: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday
Address: Virtual Education Software
16201 E Indiana Ave, Suite 1450
Spokane, WA 99216
Technical Support: email@example.com
This course offers instruction in teaching reading and writing in various subject matter fields at the secondary level. The material stresses the skills of vocabulary building, comprehension, and writing, as well as methods for motivating adolescents to read and write.
This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer. Technical support information can be found, in the Help section of your course.
Course Materials (Online)
Title: Reading & Writing in Content Area
Instructor: Dr. Pamela Bernards, Ed.D.
Publisher: Virtual Education Software, inc. 2012, Revised 2015
Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed, in part or in whole, to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.
Aiding Honesty in Others
The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.
Violations of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.
This course is designed to be an informational course with application to work or work-related settings. The reading and writing strategies were designed to be used in the context of teaching content such as mathematics, science, physical education, and history.
Students will demonstrate proficiency in the following performance standards:
1. Identifying various reading skills.
2. Identifying and discussing factors that contribute to reading failure.
3. Describing and implementing approaches to improve comprehension skills.
4. Identifying methods for vocabulary development.
5. Developing reasonable instructional goals for the content reader.
6. Stressing the acquisition of reading and writing skills across the curriculum.
7. Summarizing research for the teaching of reading and writing at the secondary level.
8. Providing methods for the teaching of skills using technology resources.
9. Using specific methods for dealing with reading and writing problems.
The course Reading & Writing in Content Area has been divided into four chapters. This course will provide information on such issues as recognizing reading difficulties, assessing textbooks, and the integration of reading strategies within a content area. The strategies taught are aligned with the Praxis Reading Across the Curriculum test guide and the Reading in the Content Area national standards.
The first chapter is an overview of theories of teaching adolescents and language acquisition. The second, third, and fourth chapters discuss current theory regarding the teaching of reading, including phonics, fluency, and motivation. In addition to the theory, these chapters challenge the learner to use specific teaching reading strategies. Strategies are given with step-by-step directions for a teacher to integrate into curriculum the next day.
These four chapters should give you an understanding of the various strategies with step-by-step teaching techniques to successfully integrate reading into your daily content teaching.
After you have completed each chapter of the course, an examination will be used to evaluate your knowledge and ability to apply what you’ve learned.
As a student you will be expected to:
· Complete all four information sections showing a competent understanding of the material presented in each section.
· Complete all four section examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented. You must obtain an overall score of 70% or higher, with no individual exam score below 50%, to pass this course. *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
· Complete a review of any section on which your examination score was below 50%.
· Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 50%, making sure to also be achieving an overall exam score of a minimum 70% (maximum of three attempts). *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
· Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.
Chapter 1: Reading & Writing as a Process
This chapter discusses theorists such as Piaget and how their research is applicable to teaching adolescents. This chapter will also provide an overview of language acquisition theories. The “big picture” of integrating reading into content areas is the main focus.
Chapter 2: Reading/Writing Environment, Materials, Instruction
This chapter discusses motivational theory and techniques and connecting reading to students’ lives. The main focus of this chapter is on strategies such as Inquiry Questions, Questioning the Author, Editor Interview, and Socratic Seminars.
Chapter 3: Reading/Writing Comprehension
This chapter discusses characteristics of good readers. The main focus of this chapter is on strategies such as an Anticipation Guide, DRT, KWL, DIA, and SQ3R.
Chapter 4: Vocabulary & Assessment
This chapter discusses the importance of teaching vocabulary within the context of a content area. The main focus of this chapter is on Word Maps, Semantic Maps, Discussion Webs, RAFT, Concept Maps and the Frayer Model. This chapter also discusses informal assessment of readers and of curriculum. Other areas of focus for this chapter include the use of Reading Inventories, GRI, and Cloze.
At the end of each chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score. After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access. Your final grade for the course will be determined by calculating an average score of all exams. This score will be printed on your final certificate. As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.
Pamela Bernards has 34 years of combined experience in diverse PK-8, high school, and higher education settings as a teacher and an administrator. In addition to these responsibilities, she was the founding director of a K-8 after-school care program and founder of a pre-school program for infants to 4-year-olds. The schools she served as a principal and as a curriculum coordinator were named U.S. Department of Education Blue Ribbon Schools of Excellence. Her areas of interest include curriculum, research-based teaching practices, staff development, assessment, data-driven instruction, and instructional intervention (remediation and gifted/talented). She received a doctorate in Leadership and Professional Practice from Trevecca Nazarene University. She currently serves as the Director of Professional Development for the National Catholic Educational Association.
You may contact the instructor by emailing Pamela Bernards at firstname.lastname@example.org or calling her at (509) 891-7219 Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. PST. Phone messages will be answered within 24 hours. Phone conferences will be limited to ten minutes per student, per day, given that this is a self-paced instructional program. Please do not contact the instructor about technical problems, course glitches, or other issues that involve the operation of the course.
If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.
If you need personal assistance then email When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call. or call (509) 891-7219.
Minimum Computer Requirements
Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.
Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted and how to submit your completed information. The addendum will also note any additional course assignments that you may be required to complete that are not listed in this syllabus.
Aiex, N. K. (1988). Using film, video, and TV in the classroom. ERIC Digest no. 11.
Alvermann, D. E., Phelps, S. F., Gillis, & V. R. (2010). Content area reading and literacy: Succeeding in today’s diverse classrooms. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Ammann, R., & Mittelsteadt, S. (1987). Turning on turned off students. Journal of
Reading, 30(8), 708-715.
Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and
assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York, NY:
Anglin, J. M. (1970). The growth of word meaning. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Banich, M. T. (1997). Neuropsychology: The neural bases of mental function. Boston: Houghton-
M. A. (1989). More than meets the eye. Foreign language reading: Theory and
(Language in Education series No. 73). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bean, T., & Harper, H. (2008). Literacy education in new times: In these times. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 52(1), 4-7.
Bernhardt, E. B. (1986). Reading in the foreign language. In B. H. Wing (Ed.), Listening,
reading, and writing: Analysis and application. Middlebury, VT: Northeast Conference.
Bigler, E.D. (1992). The neurobiology and neuropsychology of adult learning disorders. Journal
of Learning Disabilities, 25, 488-506.
Billmeyer, R. & Barton, M.L. (1998). Teaching reading in the content areas: If not me, then who? Denver, CO: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning & Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Birch, B. M. (2002). English L2 reading: Getting to the bottom. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bloom, B., Englehart, M., Furst, E., Hill, W., & Krathwohl, D. (1956). Taxonomy of educational
objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New
York, NY: Longmans, Green.
Bolton, W. R. (1982). A living language: The history and structure of English. New York, NY:
Burt, M., Peyton, J. K., & Adams, R. (2003). Reading and adult English language learners: A
review of the research. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Carbo, M. (1989). How to record books for maximum reading gains. Roslyn Heights, NY: National Reading Styles Institute.
Carbo, M. (1997). What every principal should know about teaching reading. Syosset, NY: NRSI.
Carr, D., et al. (1995). Improving student reading motivation through the use of oral
reading strategies. MA research project, St. Xavier University. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED386687.pdf
P. L. (1987). Content and formal schemata in ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly,
Carrell, P. L., Devine, J., & Eskey, D. E. (Eds.). (1988). Interactive approaches to second
language reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Childre, A., Sands, J.R., & Pope, S. T. (2009). Backward design. Teaching Exceptional Children, 41(5), 6-14.
Chiswick, B. R.,
& Miller, P. W. (2002). Immigrant earnings: Language skills, linguistic
concentrations, and the business cycle. Journal of Popular Economics, 15, 31-57.
Crain, W. (2011). Theories of development: Concepts and applications (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Cunningham, P. M. (2009). Phonics they use: Words for reading and writing. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Dale, E., & Razik, T. (1963). Bibliography of vocabulary studies (2nd rev. ed.). Columbus, OH: Bureau of Educational Research and Service, The Ohio State University.
Dale, E., & O’Rourke, J. (1971). Techniques of teaching vocabulary. Palo Alto, CA: Field Educational.
Dean, C., Hubbell, E., Pitler, H. & Stone, B. (2012). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement (2nd ed). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development & Denver, CO: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning.
de Villiers, Jill G., & Peter A. (1978). Language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dressman, M., McCarthey, S., & Prior, P. (2009). Editors’ introduction: Adolescents’ literacy and the promises of digital technology. Research in the Teaching of English, 43(4), 345-347.
Dugan, J. R. (2008). Adolescent literacy and learning: Increasing interest in reading and active learning with content literacy kits. Ohio Reading Teacher, 39(1), 25-32.
Ehren, B. J. (2009). Looking through an adolescent literacy lens at the narrow view of reading. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 40(2), 192-195.
Elman, J., Bates, E.A., Johnson, M., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Parisi, D., & Plunkett, K. (1997).
Rethinking innateness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
D. (2005). Reading in a second language. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of
second language teaching and learning (pp. 563-580). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Fisher, P., & Blachowicz, C. (2007). Teaching how to think about words. Voice From the Middle, 15(1), 6-12.
Folse, K. S.
(2004). Vocabulary myths: Applying second language research to classroom
teaching. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
Fons, J. (2009). Student reactions to just-in-time teaching’s reading assignments. Journal of College Science Teaching, 38(4), 30-33.
Foss, D. J.,
& Hakes, D. T. (1978). Psycholinguistics: An introduction to the study
language. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Francis, W. N. (1965). The English language: An introduction: Background for writing. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
Freppon, P. A.,
& Dahl, K. L. (1991). Learning about phonics in a whole language classroom.
Language Arts, 68(3), 190-197.
Fritz, A. E., Cooner, D., & Stevenson, C. (2009). Training new content area secondary teachers to teach literacy: The university/public school partnership. Reading Improvement, 46(1), 19-28.
Fuchs, L. (1987). Teaching reading in the secondary school. Fastback 251. Bloomington, IN:
Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.
Gambrell, L. B., Palmer, B. M., Codling, R. M., & Mazzoni, S. A. (2007). Assessing motivation to read: Instructional resource no. 14. Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
Glasgow, N. A., & Farrell, T. S. C. (2007). What successful literacy teachers do. Thousand
Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Gordon, Megan, (2011). Thinking Maps. [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved on December 13, 2015 from http://www.slideshare.net/mmgordon7/thinking-maps-10331621?next_slideshow=1.
Macías, R. F., Rhodes, D., & Chan, T. (2001). English literacy and
minorities in the United States (Statistical Analysis Report No. NCES 2001464).
Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
Greenenough, W. T., Black, J. E., & Wallace, C. S. (1993). Experience and brain development. In
M. Johnson (Ed.), Brain development and cognition: A reader (pp. 290-322). Oxford:
Greenwood, S. C. (1989). Summarize, compare, contrast, and critique: Encouraging active
reading through the use of cinema. Exercise Exchange, 35(1), 22-24.
Gurian, M. (2001). Boys and girls learn differently!: A guide for teachers and parents. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Gurian, M., & Stevens, K. (2005). The minds of boys: Saving our sons from falling behind in school and life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Gurian, M., Stevens, K., & King, K. (2008). Strategies for teaching boys and girls: Secondary level. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Habib, M., & Besson, M. (2009). What do music training and musical experience teach us about brain plasticity? Music Perception, 26(3), 279-285.
Hadley, A. O. (1993). Teaching language in context. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Handsfield, L. J., & Jimenez, R. T. (2008). Revisiting cognitive strategy instruction in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms: Cautions and possibilities. Language Arts, 85(6), 450-458.
Heemskerk, I., Dam, G., Volman, M., & Admirall, Wl. (2009). Gender inclusiveness in educational technology and learning experiences of girls and boys. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(3), 253-277.
E. (1982). Improving spelling and vocabulary in the secondary school.
IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills and National Council of
Teachers of English.
(1979). The foundations of literacy. Sydney, Australia: Ashton
Scholastic (available from
Heinemann in the U.S.).
Solomon, N., & Burns, A. (1996). Focus on reading. Sydney,
Australia: National Centre
for English Language Teaching and Research.
Hosenfeld, C. (1979). Cindy: A learner in today's foreign language classroom. In W.C. Born (Ed.), The foreign language learner in today’s classroom environment. Northeast Conference Reports (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 185 834)
Houge, T. T., Geier, C., & Peyton, D. (2008). Targeting adolescents’ literacy skills using one-to-one instruction with research-based practices. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 51(8), 640-650.
Hubbard, S. (2013). Education for empowerment: The link between multiple intelligences and critical consciousness. English Journal, High School Edition. 104(4): 98-102.
Huitt, W. (1992). Problem solving and decision making: Consideration of individual differences
using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Journal of Psychological Type, 24, 33-44. Retrieved from
James, A. N. (2007). Teaching the male brain: How boys think, feel, and learn in school. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Jitendra, A. K. (2008). Using schema-based instruction to make appropriate sense of word problems. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 34(2), 20-24.
Johnson, D. D., & Pearson, P. D. (1984). Teaching reading vocabulary (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Jones, L. R. (2008). Teaching secrets: Bridging the gender gap. Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/tm/articles/2008/09/03/01tln_jones.h20.html?tkn=qmNmz%252BPDLUjHZcU6RcHr2uwDB9uOuM7s
Kalbfleisch, M. L. (2008). Getting to the heart of the brain: Using cognitive neuroscience to
explore the nature of human ability and performance. Roeper Review, 30(3), 162-171.
Kamil, M. L., Borman, G. D., Dole, J., Kral, C. C., Salinger, T., & Torgesen, J. (2008).
Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A
Practice Guide (NCEE #2008-4027). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
Karni, A., Meyer, G., Jezzard, P., Adams, M., Turner, R., & Ungerleider, L. (1995). Functional
MRI evidence for adult motor cortex plasticity during motor skill learning. Nature, 377,
Keller, J. (2010). Motivational design for learning and performance: The ARCS model approach. New York: Springer.
Kos, R. (1991). Persistence of reading disabilities: The voices of four middle school
students. American Educational Research Journal, 28(4), 875-895.
(2002). Research-based principles for adult basic education reading
Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy. Retrieved from http://lincs.ed.gov/publications/pdf/adult_ed_02.pdf
Nation, I. M. P. (2000). Learning vocabulary in lexical sets: Dangers and guidelines. TESOL Journal, 9(2), 6-10.
Lacina, J., & Watson, P. A. (2008). Focus on literacy: Effective content teachers for the middle
grades. Childhood Education, 84(3), 159-162.
C. (1981). The word: A look at the vocabulary of English. New York,
NY: Simon and
Law, C., & Kaufhold, J. A. (2009). An analysis of the use of critical thinking skills in reading and language arts instruction. Reading Improvement, 46(1), 29-34.
Louge, M.E., Roble, M., Brown, M., & Waite, K. (2009). Read my dance: Promoting early writing through dance. Childhood Education, 85(4), 216-222.
Marzano, R. (2004). Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement: Research on What Works in Schools.
Alexandria, VA. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Marzano, R. & Pickering, D. (2008). Building Academic Vocabulary: Teacher’s Manual. Alexandria, VA. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Marzano, R., Pickering, D. & Pollack, J. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development & Denver, CO: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning.
McCarthy, H. (2009). Integrating physical education into the language arts program, grades K-5. Retrieved from www.sonoma.edu/kinesiology/ppep/expert_lang_holly_m.doc
McNamara, D. S. (2009). The importance of teaching reading strategies. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 35(2), 34-40.
Mills, H., O’Keefe, T., & Jennings, L. B. (1992). Looking closely: Exploring the role of phonics in one whole language classroom. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Moffett, J., & Wagner, B. J. (1983). Student-centered language arts and reading K-13: A handbook for teachers. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Nation, I. M. P. (2000). Learning vocabulary in lexical sets: Dangers and guidelines. TESOL Journal, 9(2), 6-10.
Nation, I. M. P. (2005). Teaching and learning vocabulary. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 581-595). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. (2008). Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practice_guides/adlit_pg_082608.pdf
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2007). What content-area teachers should know about adolescent literacy. Retrieved from http://lincs.ed.gov/publications/pdf/adolescent_literacy07.pdf
O’Leary, D. D., & Stanfield, B. B. (1985). Occipital cortical neurons with transient pyramidal tract
axons extend and maintain collaterals to subcortical but not intracortical targets. Brain
Research, 336, 326-333.
O'Rourke, Joseph Patrick. (1974). Toward a science of vocabulary development.
Petty, W. T., Herold, C. P., &
Stoll, E. (1968). The state of knowledge
teaching of vocabulary. Champaign, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Phillips, J. K. (1985, April). Proficiency-based instruction in reading: A teacher education
module. Sample materials--Chinese (Mandarin), English as a second language
(beginning and advanced), French, German, Japanese, Russian, Spanish, and Thai. U.S.
Department of Education Office of International Studies, #G008402271. Also in,
Teaching foreign language reading: A five-step plan. Paper presented at the Northeast
Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, New York, NY, April 25-28, 1985.
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 264 732)
Pitcher, S. M., Albright, L. K., DeLaney, C. J., Walker, N. T., Seunarinesingh, K., Mogge, S., . . . & Dunston, P. J. (2007). Assessing adolescents’ motivation to read. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 50, 378-396.
Pyles, T. P.
(1971). The origins and development of the English language (2nd ed.).
York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Qian, D. D.
(1999). Assessing the roles of depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge in
comprehension. The Canadian Modern Language Journal, 56, 262-305.
Robb, L. (2003). Teaching reading in social studies, science, and math: Practical ways to weave comprehension strategies into your content area teaching. Jefferson City, MO: Scholastic Professional Books.
Rumelhart, D. E. (1977). Toward an interactive model of reading. (CHIP Technical Report No. 56). Paper presented at the Attention and Performance VI International Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, July 1975. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 155 587)
Rycik, J. A. (2008). A decade of adolescent literacy. American Secondary Education, 37(1), 62-64.
Scharlach, T. D. (2008). START comprehending: Students and teachers actively reading text. The Reading Teacher, 62(1), 20-31.
Shipley, J. T.
(1977). In praise of English: The growth in the use of language. New
Sousa, D. (2011). How the brain learns. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Straw, S. B.
(1981). Assessment and evaluation in written composition: A commonsense
perspective. In V. Froese & S. B. Straw (Eds.), Research in the language arts:
Language and schooling. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.
Sur, M., Pallas, S. L., & Roe, A. W. (1990). Cross-modal plasticity in cortical development:
Differentiation and specification of sensory neocortex. Trends in Neuroscience, 13, 227-
Tarasiuk, T. (2009). Extreme poetry: Making meaning through words, images, and music. Voices From the Middle, 16(3), 50-51.
Nathan, R., Temple, F., & Burris, N. (1993). The beginnings of writing
Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Temple, C., Ogle, D., Crawford, A., & Freppon, P. (2008). All children read: Teaching for literacy in today’s diverse classrooms. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Thompson, D. S. (1975). Language. New York: Time-Life Books.
Trelease, J. (2013). The read aloud handbook (7th ed.). New York, NY: Penguin Books.
Turner, J., & Paris, S. G. (1995). How literacy tasks influence children's motivation for literacy. The Reading Teacher, 48(8), 662-673.
Unrau, N. (2008). Content area reading and writing: Fostering literacies in middle and high school cultures. Columbus, OH: Pearson.
Vaughn, S. & Linan-Thompson, S. (2004). Research-based methods of reading instruction (Grades K-3). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Viglione, N. M. (2009). Applying art and action. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 18, 16-19.
Wallace, J. (1995). Improving the reading skills of poor achieving students. Reading
Improvement, 32(2), 102-04.
Wang, S. & Han, S. (2001). Six c’s of motivation. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and Technology. Retrieved November 12, 2015 from http://epltt.coe.uga.edu/
D., & Crowley, P. (1988). How can we implement a whole-language approach?
Weaver, Reading process and practice: From socio-psycholinguistics to whole language
(pp. 232-79). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Wessling, S.B. (2011). Supporting students in a time of core standards: English language arts, grades 9-12. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English.
C. (1990). Jevon doesn’t sit at the back anymore. Richmond Hill,
Ontario, Canada: Scholastic.
Whitin, D. J., Mills, H., & O’Keefe, T. (1990). Living and learning mathematics: Stories and
strategies for supporting mathematical literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Winfield, Melissa. (2012). An Overview of Thinking Maps. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved December 15, 2015 fromhttp://www.slideshare.net/mwinfield1/an-overview-of-thinking-maps?related=1.
Wren, S. (2003). What does “a balanced approach” to reading mean? Retrieved November 12, 2015 from http://www.balancedreading.com/balanced.html.
Course content is updated every three years. Due to this update timeline, some URL links may no longer be active or may have changed. Please type the title of the organization into the command line of any Internet browser search window and you will be able to find whether the URL link is still active or any new link to the corresponding organization's web home page.