The Effects of Stress, Trauma & Violence on Student Learning
Instructor Name: Dr. Pamela Bernards, Ed.D.
Facilitator Name: Joan S. Halverstadt
Office Hours: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday
Address: Virtual Education Software
16201 E Indiana Ave, Suite 1450
Spokane, WA 99216
Welcome to Traumatized Child: The Effects of Stress, Trauma & Violence on Student Learning, an interactive computer-based instruction course, designed to help you identify and effectively teach students affected by stress, trauma and/or violence. This course teaches you to recognize the signs of stress, trauma or violence in students. It also discusses the specific factors that exist in families and communities where stress and violence are common. A major emphasis in this course is on helping the participant understand the special learning needs of the student who is experiencing stress, trauma or violence in his/her life and how to meet his/her needs in the regular classroom. Working with parents and community agencies is also emphasized.
This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer. Technical support information can be found in the Help section of your course.
Course Materials (Online)
Title: Traumatized Child: The Effects of Stress, Trauma & Violence on Student Learning
Instructor: Dr. Pamela Bernards, Ed.D.
Facilitator: Joan S. Halverstadt, M.Ed., School Counselor
Publisher: Virtual Education Software, inc. 2004, Revised 2010, Revised 2013
Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed, in part or in whole, to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.
Aiding Honesty in Others
The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.
Violations of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.
This course is designed to be an informational course with application to educational settings. The intervention strategies are designed to be used for the remediation of students experiencing stress, trauma, or exposure to violence, ranging in age from approximately three to eighteen years. Some alterations may be needed if working with specific populations such as gifted, ESL or special education.
At the conclusion of this course students will be able to:
1) To understand the educator’s role in supporting and accommodating students who have special learning
needs due to exposure to stress, trauma or violence in their lives
2) To understand the educator’s role in protecting and supporting vulnerable students
3) To recognize the symptoms of stress, trauma and violence
4) To understand how stress, trauma or violence affects brain development and learning
5) To understand the causes of stress, trauma and violence in families and society
6) To understand the special learning needs these students bring to the classroom
7) To gain techniques for supporting students and families affected by stress, trauma or violence
8) To learn intervention techniques applicable to the classroom setting
9) To gain a wider knowledge of available outside resources and support systems
10) To understand the educator’s role in the intervention and prevention of violence
11) To explore violence prevention resources and curricula
This course is designed to help classroom teachers, school counselors and other educational personnel gain strategies to reach and teach students who have been affected by stress, trauma and/or violence. Participants will learn the signs and symptoms of stress and trauma. Participants will explore how stress, violence and trauma affect a student’s learning, cognitive brain development and social-emotional development. The short- and long-term consequences of being exposed to stress, trauma or violence, as well as the social and family causes, will be reviewed. Participants will learn the dynamics of domestic violence and community violence. The educator’s role in the intervention and prevention of violence will be discussed.
The course is divided into four chapters. Each chapter discusses a particular topic of stress, trauma or violence. There will be numerous “checkpoint” questions inserted throughout the reading, which are designed to help students review the content and apply it to their own educational setting. The chapters are sequential and should be completed in the order in which they are presented. At the completion of each chapter, there will be an examination covering the material. Students must complete the examination before proceeding to the next chapter. In some of the chapter examinations, questions will involve case studies to provide further practice in the application of knowledge. This sequential approach to learning will help all participants gain a better understanding of what they have learned as they proceed through the course. This course is appropriate for educators seeking training in working with toddlers through adolescents, as well as those who work directly with families.
Although this course is not a comprehensive presentation of the educational issues surrounding stress, trauma and violence, it certainly includes a wealth of research covering many topics which are not covered in the scope of this course. The instructor highly recommends that you augment your readings from this course with further research to gain a fuller understanding of the complexities of this subject. However, the material presented in this course will give you a broader understanding of the topics of stress, violence and trauma. It will also give you information to apply directly to your work with students in the classroom and community.
As a student you will be expected to:
· Complete all four information sections showing a competent understanding of the material presented in each section.
· Complete all four section examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented. You must obtain an overall score of 70% or higher, with no individual exam score below 50%, to pass this course. *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
· Complete a review of any section on which your examination score was below 50%.
· Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 50%, making sure to also be achieving an overall exam score of a minimum 70% (maximum of three attempts). *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
· Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.
Chapter 2 - The Effects of Trauma on Student Learning
This chapter will discuss the effects of trauma on student learning. The way in which childhood trauma affects the brain development of young children will be a special focus. Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome in children will be discussed, as will strategies educators can use in the classroom to accommodate students who have special learning needs due to exposure to trauma.
The focus of this chapter will be the dynamics of family violence, especially domestic violence, in terms of its causes and repercussions. The ways in which children react to family violence and how exposure to family violence influences a child’s overall development are discussed.
Chapter 4 – The School’s Response to Violence in the Community
This chapter discusses bullying and the physical and emotional violence that can occur in the school setting, as well as in the school, community, and media. In addition, a discussion of strategies for how educators can include violence prevention curricula in their program and plans for dealing with school violence is included.
At the end of each chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score. After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access. Your final grade for the course will be determined by calculating an average score of all exams. This score will be printed on your final certificate. As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.
Joan Halverstadt is a Special Services Director and School Psychologist in a school district. She has fifteen years’ experience as a school counselor, working with at-risk preschool and elementary aged students. Ms. Halverstadt has over forty years of experience working in early childhood education with children and families, including working with children affected by family issues, abuse, or trauma. She also teaches graduate education counseling and special education courses for teachers and counselors. She received her National Certification and School Psychology Educational Specialist degree from Seattle University, her School Counseling Educational Staff Associate Degree from City University, her Master’s in Education Degree from George Mason University, and her BA in Psychology and Elementary Education from Whitman College. Please contact Professor Halverstadt if you have course content or examination questions.
Pamela Bernards has 30 years of combined experience in diverse PK-8 and high school settings as a teacher and an administrator. In addition to these responsibilities, she was the founding director of a K-8 after school care program and founder of a pre-school program for infants to 4-year-olds to address all early childhood issues. When she was a principal, her school was named a U.S. Department of Education Blue Ribbon School of Excellence. More recently, the school in which she serves as curriculum coordinator was named a 2010 Blue Ribbon School. Areas of interest include curriculum, research-based teaching practices, staff development, assessment, data-driven instruction, and instructional intervention with exceptional populations. She received a doctorate in Leadership and Professional Practice from Trevecca Nazarene University.
Please contact Professor Halverstadt if you have course content or examination questions.
You may contact the facilitator by emailing Professor Halverstadt at firstname.lastname@example.org or calling her at 509-891-7219, Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. PST. Phone messages will be answered within 24 hours. Phone conferences will be limited to ten minutes per student, per day, given that this is a self-paced instructional program. Please do not contact the instructor about technical problems, course glitches or other issues that involve the operation of the course.
If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.
If you need personal assistance then email email@example.com or call (509) 891-7219. When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call.
Minimum Computer Requirements
Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.
Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted and how to submit your completed information. The addendum will also note any additional course assignments that you may be required to complete that are not listed in this syllabus.
Healthcare Research and Quality. (2011, November). Interventions addressing child exposure to trauma: Part 1 child
maltreatment & family violence. Retrieved from http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2012, March). Interventions addressing child exposure to trauma: Part 2 trauma other than maltreatment and family violence. Retrieved from http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/index.cfm/search-for-guides-reviews-and-reports/?pageaction=displayproduct&productid=1017
American Academy for Children and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2011). Facts for families. Understanding violent behavior in children and adolescents #55. Retrieved from http://www.aacap.org/page.ww?section=Facts for Families&name=Understanding Violent Behavior In Children and Adolescents
American Academy for Children and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2011). Facts for families. Children and TV violence #13. Retrieved from http://www.aacap.org/page.ww?section=Facts for Families&name=Children And TV Violence
Barnett, Ola W., Miller-Perrin, Cindy L., & Perrin, Robin. (2005). Family violence across the lifespan: An introduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Boyd-Webb, Nancy. (2010). Helping bereaved children (3rd ed.: Handbook for practitioners). New York, NY: Guilford.
Brohl, Kathryn. (2007). Working with traumatized children: A handbook for healing. Washington, DC: CWLA Press.
Buz, Eric, & Guzman, Maria. Bullying and victimization: What adults can do to help (leader guide). (2007). HEF582 NebGuide. University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved from http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/sendIt/hef582.pdf
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Dept. of Health and Human Services. (2013). School health policies and programs study: SHPPS 2006. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/shpps/index.htm
Child Welfare Information Gateway, Children’s Bureau, IFC International. (n.d.). Strengthening families and communities-2009. National Resource Center for Community Based Child Abuse Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/res_guide_2009/guide.pdf
Children’s Defense Fund. (2012, July 22). The state of America’s children: 2012 highlights. Retrieved from http://www.childrensdefense.org/child-research-data-publications/data/soac-2012-handbook.html
Children’s Defense Fund. (2013, September). Moments in America for children. Retrieved from http://www.childrensdefense.org/child-research-data-publications/moments-in-america-for-children.html
Defense Fund. (2013, March). Each day in
America. Retrieved from http://www.childrensdefense
Fink, Jennifer L.W. (n.d.). When terrible things happen. Retrieved from http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/when-terrible-things-happen
Focus Adolescent Series. (2012). Teaching children not to be—or be victims of—bullies. Retrieved from www.focusas.com/Victims.html
Focus Adolescent Series. (2012). What parents and teachers should know about bullying. Retrieved from www.focusas.com/Bullying.html
Futures Without Violence (n.d.). The facts on children and domestic violence. Retrieved from http://www.futureswithoutviolence.org/userfiles/file/Children_and_Families/Children.pdf
Greenwald, Ricky. (2005, September). Child trauma handbook (1st ed.). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Jaffe-Gill, Ellen; Smith, Melinda; Larson, Heather; & Segal, Jeanne. (2007). Understanding stress: Signs, symptoms, causes, and effects. Retrieved from http://www.westga.edu/~vickir/GeneralPublic/GP19%20TraumaticStress/Understanding%20Stress.pdf
Juhnke, Gerald. (2009). National Parent Information Network—Virtual Library. Assessing potentially violent students. Retrieved from http://www.ericdigests.org/2000-3/violent.htm
Kearney, Margaret. (1999). The role of teachers in helping children of domestic violence. Childhood Education, 75(5), 290-296.
Peter, & Klein, Maggie. (2007). Trauma through a child’s eyes: Awakening
the ordinary miracle of healing infancy through adolescence. Berkeley, CA:
North Atlantic Books.
Lindsay, Duncan. (2004). The welfare of children. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Lingren, Herbert. Children and stress. Cooperative Extension, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1278&context=extensionhist
Massachusetts Advocates for Children: Trauma and Learning Policy Initiative. (2009). Helping traumatized children learn: Supportive school environments for children traumatized by domestic violence: A report and policy agenda. Retrieved from http://www.massadvocates.org/documents/HTCL_9-09.pdf
National Association of School Psychologists. (2011). Identifying seriously traumatized children. Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/resources/crisis_safety?psycht_general.aspx
National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (n.d.). Early childhood trauma. Retrieved from http://www.nctsn.org/resources/topics/treatments-that-work/promising-practices
National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (n.d.). Empirically supported treatments & promising practices. Retrieved from http://www.nctsn.org/resources/topics/treatments-that-work/promising-practices
National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (n.d.). Responding to a school crisis. Retrieved from http://www.nctsn.org/resources/audiences/school-personnel/crisis-situation
National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (n.d.). The effects of trauma on schools and learning. Retrieved from http://www.nctsn.org/resources/audiences/school-personnel/effects-of-trauma
National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (n.d.). What is domestic violence? Retrieved from http://www.nctsn.org/trauma-types/domestic-violence
Child Traumatic Stress Network. (2010). The 12 core concepts: Concepts for
understanding traumatic stress responses in children and families.
Retrieved from http://www.nctsn.org/resources/audiences
National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (2005). Understanding child traumatic stress. Retrieved from http://nctsn.org/sites/default/files/assets/pdfs/understanding_child_traumatic_stress_brochure_9-29-05.pdf
National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information/Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2001). Understanding the effects of maltreatment on early brain development. Retrieved from http://dcfs.co.la.ca.us/katieA/docs/Maltreatmnet%20on%20Early%20Brain%20Development.pdf
National Coalition Against Domestic Violence. (n.d.). Domestic violence fact sheet. Retrieved from http://www.ncadv.org/files/DomesticViolenceFactSheet(National).pdf
National Education Association. (2012). Children exposed to domestic violence: A teacher’s handbook to increase understanding and improve community responses. Retrieved from http://www.lfcc.on.ca/teacher-us.PDF
National Mental Health Association. (2013). Fact sheet: Post-traumatic stress disorder. Retrieved from http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/go/ptsd
Norwood, George. (2001, September 14). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Retrieved from
ParentFurther. (2013). Cyberbullying. Retrieved from http://www.parentfurther.com/high-risk-behaviors/bullying/cyberbullying
Perry, Bruce D. (n.d.). Columbine, killing, and you. Retrieved from http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/columbine-killing-and-you
Perry, Bruce D. (1997). Incubated in terror: Neurodevelopmental factors in the cycle of violence. In J. Osofsky (Ed.), Children, youth, and violence: The search for solutions (pp. 124–148). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Perry, Bruce D. (2009b, December). The neurodevelopmental impact of violence in childhood. In D. Schetky & E. Benedek (Eds.), Textbook of child and adolescent forensic psychiatry (pp. 221–238). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Perry, Bruce D. (2009c, December). Understanding traumatized and maltreated children. Retrieved from http://www.lfcc.on.ca/Perry_Core_Concepts_Violence_and_Childhood.pdf
Perry, Bruce D. (2009d, December). Violence and childhood: How persisting fear can alter the developing child’s brain. Retrieved from http://www.terrylarimore.com/PainAndViolence.html
SafeSchools. (2001). Courses. Retrieved from http://www.safeschools.com/courses/index.php
School Health Policies and Programs Study. (2006). Study fact sheet: Violence prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/shpps/2006/factsheets/pdf/FS_ViolencePrevention_SHPPS2006.pdf
Silva, Raul. (2004). Posttraumatic stress disorders in children and adolescents (1st ed.). New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture: Safety, Health, and Employee Welfare Division. (n.d.). Domestic violence awareness handbook. Retrieved from www.usda.gov/da/shmd/aware.htm
U.S. Dept. of Veterans Affairs (2009). Common Reactions to Trauma. Retrieved from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/common-reactions-after-trauma.asp
Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services—Children’s Administration. (2005, July 26). Legal issues in domestic violence. DSHS 22-163. Retrieved from http://www.dshs.wa.gov/ca/services/srvDVFAQ.asp/
Course content is updated every three years. Due to this update timeline, some URL links may no longer be active or may have changed. Please type the title of the organization into the command line of any Internet browser search window and you will be able to find whether the URL link is still active or any new link to the corresponding organization's web home page.