Supporting At-Risk Young Learners & Their Families


Instructor Name:


Dr. Pamela Bernards, Ed.D.


Joan S. Halverstadt, MS/ED



Office Hours:

8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday



Virtual Education Software


23403 E Mission Avenue, Suite 220F


Liberty Lake, WA 99019

Technical Support:




Welcome to Supporting At-Risk Young Learners & Their Families, an interactive computer-based instruction course designed to help you identify and effectively teach At-Risk students under 8 years of age. This course discusses the reasons some children are considered at risk of not reaching their full potential and how educators can reverse negative trends. The course discusses the external situations that cause risk, such as poverty, family dysfunction, and environmental influences such as violence, in addition to the internal factors, such as temperament, being a second language learner, and having a disability or a mental health concern. A major emphasis for the class is on how to work with families to provide the resources the family needs to provide healthy and developmentally appropriate experiences for young children. Interventions for both the child and the family are included, as are the hallmarks of excellent early childhood programs.


This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer. Technical support information can be found in the Help section of your course.



Course Materials (Online)


Supporting At-Risk Young Learners & Their Families


Virtual Education Software, inc. 2022


Dr. Pamela Bernards, Ed.D.


Joan S. Halverstadt, MS/ED



Academic Integrity Statement

The structure and format of most distance-learning courses presume a high level of personal and academic integrity in completion and submission of coursework. Individuals enrolled in a distance-learning course are expected to adhere to the following standards of academic conduct.


Academic Work

Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed, in part or in whole, to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.


Aiding Honesty in Others

The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.


Violations of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.



Level of Application

This course is designed to be an informational course with application to educational settings. The intervention strategies are designed to be used for the remediation of At-Risk students ranging in age from birth to 8 years. Some alterations may be needed if working with specific populations such as gifted, ESL, or special education.



Expected Learning Outcomes

As a result of this course, participants will demonstrate their ability to:

·         Understand the educator’s role in identifying and providing interventions for at-risk young children

·         Recognize the symptoms of a child and/or their family being at risk

·         Understand what adverse childhood experiences are and how they affect a child’s growth and development

·         Understand the external and internal causes of a child’s being placed at risk in families and society

·         Understand the special learning needs these students bring to the classroom

·         Gain techniques for supporting students and families affected by negative factors

·         Learn intervention techniques applicable to early childhood settings

·         Gain a wider knowledge of available outside resources and support systems

·         Understand the educator’s role in the intervention and prevention of developmental delays

·         Understand how the family is the child’s primary influence and the role their choices make in the child’s early development



Course Description

This course is designed to help Early Childhood Educators gain strategies to reach and teach young children who are at risk of not meeting their potential. Participants will learn the internal and external factors that place a child at risk, how heredity and environment affect a child’s development, the characteristics of various risk factors, and interventions for each risk factor. A major emphasis will be on the family’s influence on the child’s development and how Early Childhood Educators can work with families to support their child’s growth in all areas of development.


The course is divided into four chapters. The first chapter defines “at-risk” factors, reviews early childhood development, and presents information about adverse childhood experiences. The second chapter presents the various external environmental and family factors that contribute to a child’s being at risk. The third chapter discusses the internal, child-centered factors of risk. And the fourth chapter presents the problems trauma and abuse cause the developing child. The chapters are sequential and should be completed in the order in which they are presented. At the end of each chapter, there will be an examination covering the material. Students must complete the examination before proceeding to the next chapter. In some of the examinations, questions will involve case studies to provide further practice in the application of knowledge. This course is appropriate for educators who seek training in working with children ages birth to 8 years and for professionals who work directly with families.


Although this course is a comprehensive presentation of the educational issues surrounding adverse childhood experiences and their influence on a child’s development, there is certainly a wealth of research and topics that are not covered in the scope of this course. The instructor highly recommends that you augment your readings from this course with further research to gain a fuller understanding of the complexities of this subject. However, the material presented in this course will give you a broader understanding of the topic. It will also give you information to apply directly to your work with students in the classroom and the community.



Student Expectations

As a student you will be expected to:

·         Complete all four information sections showing a competent understanding of the material presented in each section.

·         Complete all four section examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.  You must obtain an overall score of 70% or higher, with no individual exam score below 50%, to pass this course.  *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.

·         Complete a review of any section on which your examination score was below 50%.

·         Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 50%, making sure to also be achieving an overall exam score of a minimum 70% (maximum of three attempts). *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.

·         Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.



Chapter Topics

Chapter One: The Early Years of Child Development

In Chapter One, the early years of child development are discussed in regard to the influences of heredity vs. environmental factors. How the environment influences brain development is a major focus. How adverse childhood experiences affect development is reviewed. Also, several child development theories that explain the influence of family and the needs of children are presented.


Chapter Two: Family Contributors to Potential Adverse Childhood Experiences

In Chapter Two, we examine how the family environment and the family’s choices affect how a child develops their cognitive, social-emotional, language, physical, and adaptive skills and their personality. The external factors that can negatively affect a child’s development include poverty, parental issues such as divorce, and dysfunctional families with addictions or mental illness. Interventions for removing school barriers for these families, along with interventions for both the family and the child, are discussed.


Chapter Three: Individual Factors Contributing to Potential Developmental Risks

This chapter will discuss child’s internal factors that may contribute to developmental risk. These include such issues as school readiness, temperament/personality, mental health factors, having a disability, or being an English Language Learner. The final section of the chapter is a discussion on how to build resilience in both families and children.


Chapter Four: The Effects of Trauma: Child Abuse/Neglect, Domestic Violence, General Trauma

The final chapter examines the effects of trauma on children’s development. Child abuse and violence both have devastating effects on the development of a young brain and leave lasting problems. Interventions for working with trauma-affected students is a major focus of this chapter, as is violence prevention.




At the end of each chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score.  After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access.  Your final grade for the course will be determined by calculating an average score of all exams.  This score will be printed on your final certificate.  As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.



Facilitator Description

Joan Halverstadt is a retired special services director and school counselor/psychologist. She has 20 years’ experience as a school counselor working with at-risk preschool and elementary aged students. Ms. Halverstadt has 45 years of experience working in early childhood education with children and families, including working with children affected by family issues, abuse, or trauma. She also teaches graduate education counseling and special education courses for teachers and counselors. She received her National Certification and her School Psychology Educational Specialist degree from Seattle University, her School Counseling Educational Staff associate degree from City University, her master’s in Education degree from George Mason University, and her BA in Psychology and Elementary Education from Whitman College. Please contact Professor Halverstadt if you have course content or examination questions.



Instructor Description

Pamela Bernards has 30 years of combined experience in diverse PK-8 and high school settings as a teacher and an administrator. In addition to these responsibilities, she was the founding director of a K-8 after school care program and founder of a pre-school program for infants to 4-year-olds. When she was a principal, her school was named a U.S. Department of Education Blue Ribbon School of Excellence. More recently, the school in which she serves as curriculum coordinator was named a 2010 Blue Ribbon School. Areas of interest include curriculum, research-based teaching practices, staff development, assessment, data-driven instruction, and instructional intervention (remediation and gifted/talented). She received a doctorate in Leadership and Professional Practice from Trevecca Nazarene University. Please contact Professor Halverstadt if you have course content or examination questions.



Contacting the Facilitator

You may contact the facilitator by emailing Professor Halverstadt at or calling her 509-891-7219, Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. PST. Phone messages will be answered within 24 hours. Phone conferences will be limited to ten minutes per student, per day, given that this is a self-paced instructional program. Please do not contact the instructor about technical problems, course glitches or other issues that involve the operation of the course.



Technical Questions

If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at  and also the Help section of your course.


If you need personal assistance then email or call (509) 891-7219. When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call.


Minimum Computer Requirements

Please refer to VESi’s website: or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.


Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted, and how to submit your completed information. The addendum will also note any additional course assignments that you may be required to complete that are not listed in this syllabus.




Chapter 1 Articles

Annie Casey Foundation. (2013). The first eight years: Giving kids a foundation for lifetime success. Retrieved from

Annie Casey Foundation. (2017). Measuring equity: Race for results index. Retrieved from

Aratani, Y. National Center For Children In Poverty. Homeless Children and Youth: Causes and Consequences  (2009)

Campaign for Grade-Level Reading. (n.d.). The 30 million word gap. Retrieved from

CDC [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]. (2018). Facts about developmental disabilities (Causes and risk factors). Retrieved from 

CDC. (2019). Violence prevention. About the CDC–Kaiser ACE study. Retrieved from

Children’s Defense Fund. (2017). The state of America’s children 2017. Retrieved from

Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., Koss, M. F., & Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258. Retrieved from

Fergeson, D; Smith, S; & Granja, M.  Child Welfare and Early Interventions:  Policies and Practices to Promote Collaboration and Help Infants and Toddlers Thrive. (2022) 

Livingstone, G. (2018, April 27). Fact tank: News in the numbers; About one-third of U.S. children are living with an unmarried parent. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from

 Mathur, A. (2015, November 18). The cost of being a single mother. Forbes. Retrieved from NAEYC. (1995, July, rev.). School readiness [Position Statement]. Retrieved from

National Alliance to End Homelessness. (n.d.). Children and families. Retrieved from,homelessnessforlowincomefamilies.&targetText=Rapidrehousingprovideshelp,intohousingoftheirown

Rhode Island Kids Count. (2005, February). Getting ready: Findings for the National School Readiness Indicators Initiative. Retrieved from

Prince, D. L., & Howard, E. M. (2002). Children and their basic needs. Early Childhood Education Journal, 30(1), 27–31. doi:10.1023/A:1016589814683

Scharte, M., Bolte, G., & GME Study Group. (2013). Increased health risks of children with single mothers: The impact of socio-economic and environmental factors. European Journal of Public Health, 23(3), 469–475. doi:10.1093/eurpub/cks062

Swick, K. J., & Williams, R. (2006). An analysis of Bronfenbrenner’s bio-ecological perspective for early childhood educators: Implications for working with families experiencing stress. Early Childhood Education Journal, 33(5), 371–378. doi:10.1007/s10643-006-0078-y

Stormont, M., & Thomas, C. N. (2013). Who is at risk for failure? In Simple strategies for teaching children at risk, K–5 (Chapter 1). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Retrieved from

United States Interagency Council on Homelessness. (2018, September). Homelessness in America: Focus on families with children. Retrieved from

U.S. Census Bureau. (2018). Table C2. Household relationship and living arrangements of children under 18 years, by age and sex: 2018. Retrieved from

Chapter 2 Articles

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Stress in America: Identifying signs of stress in your children and teens. Retrieved from

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2017). Children and divorce. Retrieved from

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2018). Grief and children. Retrieved from

Brodzeller, K., Ottley, J., Jung, J., & Coogle, C. (2018). Interventions and adaptions for children with autism spectrum disorder in inclusive early childhood settings. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46, 277–286. doi:10.1007/s10643-017-0859-5

Dougy Center. (n.d.). Developmental responses to grief. Retrieved from

Duncan, G., & Magnuson, K. (2011). The long reach of early childhood poverty. Pathways, Winter, 22–27. Retrieved from

Egalite, A. (2016). How family background influences student achievement. Education Next, 16(2). Retrieved from

Ekano, M., Jiang, Y., & Smith, S. (2016). Young children in deep poverty. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved from

Hernandez, D. (2012). Double jeopardy: How third grade reading skills and poverty influence high school graduation. Annie Casey Foundation. Retrieved from

High Scope. (2019). Perry preschool project. Retrieved from

Hinton, S., & Cassel, Darlinda. (2013). Exploring the lived experiences of homeless families with young children. Early Childhood Education Journal, 41(6), 457–463. Retrieved from

Jensen, E. (2009). Teaching with poverty in mind: What being poor does to kids’ brains and what schools can do about it. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Jensen, E. (2013). How poverty affects classroom engagement. Educational Leadership, 70(8), 24–30. Retrieved from

Jensen, E. (2013). The seven engagement factors. In Engaging students with poverty in mind: Practical strategies for raising achievement (Chapter 1). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Retrieved from

Kids Health. (2017). Bereavement reactions by age group. Retrieved from

Klein, L., & Knitzer, J. (2006, September). Pathways to early school success: Effective preschool curricula and teaching strategies. Issue brief #2. National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University. Retrieved from

Koball, H., & Jiang, Y. (2018). Basic facts about low-income children: Children under 9 years, 2016. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved from

La Vigne, N. G., Davies, E., & Brazzell, D. (2008, February 12). Broken bonds: Understanding and addressing the needs of children with incarcerated parents. Retrieved from

Lipari, R. N., & Van Horn, S. L. (2017, August 24). The CBHSQ report: Children living with parents who have a substance abuse disorder. SAMHSA. Retrieved from

Martin, J. A., Hamilton, B. E., & Osterman, M. J. K. (2019). Births in the United States, 2018. NCHS Data Brief, no 346. CDC. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.

Morin, A. (2019, October 30). Effects of military deployment on children. verywellfamily. Retrieved from

NAMI [National Alliance for the Mentally Ill]. (n.d.). Mental health facts in America. Retrieved from

National Coalition for the Homeless. (2009, July). Homeless families with children. Retrieved from

Schanzenbach, D., & Bauer, L. (2016, August 19). The long-term impact of the Head Start program. Brookings. Retrieved from

Sogomonyan, F., & Cooper, J. L. (2010, May). Trauma faced by children of military families: What every policymaker should know. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved from

Smith, V., & Wilson, C. (2016). Families affected by parental substance use. American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved from

teAchnology. (n.d.). The effects of poverty on teaching and learning. Retrieved from

Termini, A. M. (2018, February 27). Psychological tasks of children of divorce and separation. Retrieved from

Urban Child Institute. (2014, February 27). How adolescent parenting affects children, families, and communities. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2010, January). Head Start impact study final report: Executive summary.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Head Start, National Center on Parent, Family, and Community Engagement. (2018). Head Start Parent, Family, and Community Engagement Framework. Retrieved from

Vigne, N., Davies, E., & Brazzell, D. (2008, February 12). Broken bonds: Understanding and addressing the needs of children with incarcerated parents. Urban Institute. Retrieved from (n.d.). Tip sheet for teachers (pre-K through 12): Supporting children who have an incarcerated parent.

Chapter 3 Articles

Aceves, T. C., & Orosco, M. J. (2014, July). Culturally responsive teaching (Document no. IC-2). Retrieved from University of Florida, Collaboration for Effective Educator Development, Accountability and Reform Center website:

ADAA [Anxiety and Depression Association of America]. Anxiety and depression in children. Retrieved from

ADDRC [Attention Deficit Disorder Resource Center]. ADHD numbers: Facts, statistics, and you. Retrieved from,agesof3and6.

Brooks, M. (2014, May 14). Depression top cause of illness, disability among teens: WHO. Retrieved from,WorldHealthOrganization(WHO).&targetText=Despitetheratesbeingrelatively,mortalityduringtheadolescentyears

Bueno, M., Darling-Hammond, L., & Gonzalez, D. (2010, March). A matter of degrees: Preparing teachers for the pre-K classroom. The Pew Center on the States. Retrieved from

Childhelp. (2018). Child abuse statistics and facts. Retrieved from

Children’s Bureau. (2019, January 28). Child maltreatment 2017. Retrieved from

Child Trends. High Quality Preschool Can Support Healthy Development and Learning. April 30, 2018.

Council for Exceptional Children. (2019). Disability terms and conditions. Retrieved from

Cree, R. A., Bitsko, R. H., Robinson, L. R., Holbrook, J. R., Danielson, M. L., Smith, D. S., . . . Peacock, G. (2018). Health care, family, and community factors associated with mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders and poverty among children aged 2–8 years — United States, 2016. MMWR, 67(5), 1377–1383. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6750a1

Cummins, J. (2008). BICS and CALP: Empirical and theoretical status of the distinction. In N. Van Deusen-Scholl & N. Hornberger, Language education in Europe: The common European framework of reference (pp. 487–499). doi:10.1007/978-0-387-30424-3

DeBoard-Lucas, R., Wasserman, K., McAlister-Groves, B., & Bair-Merritt, M. (2013). 16 trauma informed, evidence based recommendations for advocates working with children exposed to intimate partner violence. Futures Without Violence. Retrieved from

Dinkmeyer, S. (2013). CDC: One in five kids lives with a mental health issue. NAMI. Retrieved from

Erikson, E. (1950). Childhood and society. New York, NY: Norton.

Gargiulo, R. (2006, April). Homeless and disabled: Rights, responsibilities, and recommendations for serving young children with special needs. Early Childhood Education Journal, 33(5), 357–362. doi:10.1007/s10643-006-0067-1

Grotberg, E. (1999). Countering depression with the five building blocks of resilience. Reaching Today’s Youth, 4(1), 66–72. Retrieved from

Grotberg, E. H. (2001). Resilience programs for children in disaster. Ambulatory Child Health, 7(2), 75–83. doi:10.1046/j.1467-0658.2001.00114.x

Mark Guiberson, M & Petrita-Ferris, K. Early Language Interventions for Young Dual Language Learners: A Scoping Review  American Journal of Speech Language Pathology.  Volume 28 Issue 3 August 2019, p. 929-1379

Harvard University, National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2015). Supportive relationships and active skills building strength the foundations of resilience. Retrieved from

Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (2003). The early catastrophe: The 30 million word gap by age 3. American Educator, Spring, 4–9. Retrieved from:

Hohmann, M., & Weikart, D. P. (1995). Educating young children: Active learning practices for preschool and child care programs. Excerpted from Educating young children (pp. 13–41). Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press.

Huberty, T. J. (n.d.). Anxiety: Helping Handout For School and Home. National Association of School Psychologists. Retrieved from

Kaiser, A. P., & Hancock, T. B. (2003). Teaching parents new skills to support their young children’s development. Infants & Young Children, 16(1), 9–21. Retrieved from

Karberg, E., Cabrera, N., Fagan, J., Scott, M. E., & Guzman, L. (2017, February). Family stability and instability among low-income Hispanic mothers with young children. National Research Center on Hispanic Children and Families. Retrieved from

Karberg, E., Guzman, L., Cook, Scott, M. E., & Cabrera, N. (2017, February). A portrait of Latino fathers: Strengths and challenges. National Research Center on Hispanic Children and Families. Retrieved from

Killion, C. M. (2017). Cultural healing practices that mimic child abuse. Retrieved from

Klein, L., & Knitzer, J. (2006, September). Pathways to early school success: Effective preschool curricula and teaching strategies. Issue brief no. 2. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved from

McLanahan, S., & Beck, A. N. (2017). Parental relationships in fragile families. Future Child, 20(2), 17–37. doi:10.2307/20773693

National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management. (2016). Eligibility and service delivery policies: Differences between IDEA Part C and IDEA Part B. Retrieved from

NAMI [National Alliance on Mental Illness]. (2013). Juvenile justice. Retrieved from

NAMI (2017). Anxiety disorders. Retrieved from,developsymptomsbeforeage21.

NAMI (2019). Mental health by the numbers. Retrieved from

NAMI. (n.d.). Mental health facts: Children and teens. Retrieved from

NEA [National Education Association]. (n.d.). Parent, family, community involvement in education. [NEA policy brief]. Retrieved from

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Klein, L., & Knitzer, J. (2007, January). Promoting effective early learning: What every policymaker and educator should know. NCCP. Retrieved from

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Learning Liftoff. (2015, July 16). Why early intervention in education is important for children with developmental difficulties. Retrieved from NAEYC. (2009a). Where we stand on school readiness. Retrieved from

NAEYC. (2009b). Where we stand on responding to linguistic and cultural diversity. Retrieved from

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The National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Effects.

NIH [National Institutes of Health]. (n.d.). What conditions or disorders are commonly associated with Down syndrome? Retrieved from,reducedoxygenintheblood).

Padilla, C. M., Cabrera, & West (2017, September 19). The development and home environments of low-income Hispanic children: Kindergarten to third grade. National Research Center on Hispanic Children and Families. Retrieved from

Shin, S. (2010). Teaching English Language Learners: Recommendations for Early Childhood Educators. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 38(2). Retrieved from

Slentz, K. (n.d.). Early childhood disabilities and special education. National Association of School Psychologists. Retrieved from

Supin, J. (2016, November). Bruce Perry on The long shadow: The lingering effects of childhood trauma. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Education. (2019). IDEA Section 618 Data Products: Static Tables. Retrieved from

Washington State Department of Early Learning. (2017). Fast facts about Early Support for Infants and Toddlers (ESIF). Retrieved from

Wildsmith, E., Alvira-Hammond, M., & Guzman, L. (2016, February 23). A national portrait of Hispanic children in need. National Research Center on Hispanic Children & Families. Retrieved from

Wilson-Simmons, R., Jiang, Y., & Aratani, Y. (2017, April). Strong at the broken places: The resiliency of low-income parents. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved from

Xu, Yaoying & Drame, Elizabeth. Culturally appropriate context: Unlocking the potential of response to intervention for English language learners. Early Childhood Education Journal, 35(4), 305–311. doi:10.1007/s10643-007-0213-4

Chapter 4 Articles

Administration for Children and Families. (2019). Child maltreatment 2017. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect, NDACAN, Cornell University. Retrieved from

Administration for Children and Families. (2018). Child maltreatment 2016. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect, NDACAN, Cornell University. Retrieved from

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2009). Policy statement: Media violence. Retrieved from

American Psychological Association. (2003, March 9). Childhood exposure to media violence predicts young adult aggressive behavior, according to a new 15-year study. Retrieved from

American Psychological Association. (2017). Resilience guide for parents and teachers. Retrieved from

Baker, L., & Cunningham, A. (2009). Inter-Parental violence: The pre-schooler’s perspective and the educator’s role. Day Care and Early Education, 37(3), 199–207. doi:10.1007/s10643-009-0342-z

Balingit, M. (2018, July 3). What happens when schoolchildren live in violent neighborhoods? Washington Post. Retrieved from

Bartlett, J., Smith, S., & Bringewatt, E. (2017, April). Helping young children who have experienced trauma: Policies and strategies for early care and education. Child Trends/National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved from

Bethell, C. D., Carle, A., Hudziak, J., Gombojav, N., Powers, K. Wade, R., & Braveman, P. (2017). Methods to assess adverse childhood experiences of children and families: Toward approaches to promote child well-being in policy and practice. Academic Pediatrics, 17(7), S51–S69. doi:10.1016/j.acap.2017.04.161

Blaustein, M., & Kinniburgh, K. (2019). Treating traumatic stress in children and adolescence. New York, NY: Guilford.

Bushman, B. J., & Huesmann, L. R. (2006, April). Short-term and long-term effects of violent media on aggression in children and adults. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 160(4), 348–352. doi:10.1001/archpedi.160.4.348

CDC [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]. (2018). Preventing adverse childhood experiences training. Retrieved from

Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence. (n.d.). Creating a safe world. Retrieved from

Child Trends. (2016, May). Children’s exposure to violence. Available at

Childhelp. (2018). Child abuse statistics and facts. Retrieved from

Children’s Defense Fund. (2017). The state of America’s children 2017 report. Retrieved from

Crisis Prevention Institute, Inc. (n.d.). Trauma-Informed care resources guide. Retrieved from

Crisis Prevention Institute.  Trauma Informed Care for Educators.

DeBoard-Lucas, R., Wasserman, K., McAlister Groves, B., & Bair-Merritt, M. (2013). 16 trauma-informed, evidence-based recommendations for advocates working with children exposed to intimate partner violence. Promising Futures. Retrieved from

Domesticshelters.og. (2015, January 7). Children and domestic violence: Leading facts and statistics. Retrieved from

DSHS.(n.d.). Protecting the abused and neglected child. Retrieved from

Edleson, J. (1999, April). Problems associated with children’s witnessing of domestic violence. Retrieved from

Gander, K. (2019, March 21). More children were shot dead in 2017 than on-duty police officers and active duty military, study says. Newsweek. Retrieved from

HUD Office of Policy Development and Research. (2016, Summer). Neighborhoods and violent crime. Evidence Matters. Retrieved from

Media Education Foundation. (n.d.). Media violence: Facts and statistics. Retrieved from

Metzler, M., Merrick, M. T., Klevans, J., Ports, K. A. & Ford, D. C. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences and life opportunities: Shifting the narrative. Children and Youth Services Review, 72, 141–145. Retrieved from

National Association of School Psychologists.  Supporting Students Experiencing Childhood Trauma: Tips for Parents and Educators.

NAEYC. (1993). Violence in the lives of children: A position statement of the National Association for the Education of Young Children. Retrieved from

National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (2008). Child trauma toolkit for educators. Retrieved from

National Coalition Against Domestic Violence. (2015). Domestic violence and children. Retrieved from

Perry, B. (2004, September 23). Maltreatment and the developing child [Lecture]. Retrieved from

Perry, B. (2014). Helping traumatized children: A brief overview for caregivers. Child Trauma Academy

Perry, B. D. (2016, December 13). The brain science behind student trauma. Education Week. Retrieved from

Rape, Assault, Abuse, & Incest National Network. (2018). Effects of sexual violence. Retrieved from

Reed, B., & Railsback, J. (2003, May). Instructional methods and program models for serving English language learners: An overview for the mainstream teachers. Northeast Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved from

Sacks, V., & Murphey, D. (2018, February 20, update). The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences, nationally, by state, & by race/ethnicity. ChildTrends. Retrieved from

Safe Start. (n.d.). Healing the invisible wounds: Children’s exposure to violence; A guide for families. Retrieved from

Sciaraffa, M., Zeanah, P., & Zeanah, C. (2018). Understanding and promoting resilience in the context of adverse childhood experiences. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46(3), 343–353. doi:10.1007/s10643-017-0869-3

Sun, J., Patel, F., Rose-Jacobs, R. Frank, D. A., Black, M. M, & Chilton, M. (2017). Mothers’ adverse childhood experiences and their young children’s development. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 53(6), 882–891. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2017.07.015

Thompson, M., & Marusak, H. (2017). Toward understanding the impact of trauma on the early developing human brain. Neuroscience, 7(342), 55–67. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.02.022

Urban Child Institute. (n.d.). How neighborhoods affect children’s well being. Retrieved from

West-Rosenthal, L. B. (2017, October 23). 9 key resources on trauma informed schools. School Leaders Now. Retrieved from:

Wilkinson, A., & Lantos, H. (2018). How school, family, and community protective factors can help youth who have experienced maltreatment. Child Trends.



Crosson-Tower, C. (2013). Understanding child abuse and neglect (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Dougy Center. (2015). Helping children cope with death. Author.

Dragan, P. B. (2005). A how-to guide for teaching English language learners in the primary classroom.Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Follari, L. (2015). Valuing diversity in early childhood education. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Gargiulo, R., & Kilgo, J. (2014). An introduction to young children with special needs birth through age 8 (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Howard, T., Grogan-Dresser, S., & Dunklee, D. (2009). Poverty is NOT a learning disability: Equalizing opportunities for low SES students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Jensen, E. (2013). Engaging students with poverty in mind: Practical strategies for raising achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Jensen, E. (2005). Teaching with the brain in mind (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Jensen, E. (2009). Teaching with poverty in mind: What being poor does to kids’ brains and what schools can do about it. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Kirsh, S. (2011). Children, adolescents, and media violence: A look at the research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Olsen Edwards, J., & Derman-Sparks, L. (2010). Anti-bias education for young children and ourselves. Washington, DC: NAEYC.

Olson, G., & Fuller, M. (2012). Home and school relations: Teachers and parents working together (4th ed.). Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Pulido, M. (Ed.). (1990). Neglect. In The NYSPCC professional handbook: Identifying and reporting child abuse and neglect. New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

 Tabors, P. O. (2008). One child, two languages: A guide for early childhood educators of children learning English as a second language. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Course content is updated every three years. Due to this update timeline, some URL links may no longer be active or may have changed. Please type the title of the organization into the command line of any Internet browser search window and you will be able to find whether the URL link is still active or any new link to the corresponding organization's web home page.


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