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Inclusion:

Working with Students with Special Needs

in General Education Classrooms

 

 

Instructor Name:          Dr. Karen Lea

Phone:                         509-891-7219

Office Hours:               8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday

Email:                          karen_lea@virtualeduc.com

Address:                      Virtual Education Software

                                    16201 E Indiana Ave, Suite 1450

                                    Spokane, WA 99216

Technical Support:       support@virtualeduc.com

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Introduction

Inclusion: Working with Students with Special Needs in General Education Classrooms was written to help teachers understand concepts and terms related to educating students in inclusive classrooms. The course also helps teachers learn about the continuum of placements school systems can use in providing special education and related services to students with disabilities. Information discussed is also designed to help you understand the federal definition of students entitled to special education services, as well as procedures you can use in determining whether these students can be educated in the regular classroom. The course also identifies and describes the roles and responsibilities of special and general educators in providing special education services to students educated in inclusive classrooms and instructional and classroom management strategies teachers can use to work with these students in the least restrictive environment.

 

This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer.  Technical support information can be found in the Help section of your course.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Course Materials (Online)

Title:                Inclusion: Working with Students with Special Needs in General Education Classrooms

Instructor:       Dr. Karen Lea

Publisher:        Virtual Education Software, inc. 2002, Revised 2010, Revised 2015, Revised 2017, Revised 2020

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Academic Integrity Statement

The structure and format of most distance-learning courses presume a high level of personal and academic integrity in completion and submission of coursework. Individuals enrolled in a distance-learning course are expected to adhere to the following standards of academic conduct.

 

Academic Work

Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed, in part or in whole, to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.

 

Aiding Honesty in Others

The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.

 

Violation of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Level of Application

This course is designed as an informational course for K-12 regular and special education teachers, administrators, parents, and related service personnel. Information discussed is designed to help you better understand current educational models being used to educate students with disabilities in the general education classroom.  This course will allow you to compare and identify how school districts in your own area are implementing inclusion programs, handling current inclusion issues, and some of the practices teachers are using to educate students in inclusive settings. 

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Expected Learning Outcomes

As a result of taking this course, participants will be able to demonstrate their ability to:

·         Explain federal law and regulations and how these affect educators

·         Correctly use key terms when communicating with a special education team and guardians

·         Use Response to Intervention at an initial level

·         Identify characteristics of special needs students

·         Apply strategies for effective teaching, including classroom management

·         Choose appropriate instructional and assessment accommodations and modifications

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Course Description

Information provided in this course has been divided into five chapters, which should be completed in the order in which they are presented in the program. Once you have completed these five chapters, you should have a better understanding of the concept of inclusion and how it came about. You are strongly encouraged to read additional journal articles, books, and research materials outside the course material to gain a better understanding of current issues related to educating students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Chapter 1: The Concept & Federal Definition of Students with Disabilities

This chapter focuses on federal law and regulations, and key terms and concepts. This is foundational knowledge for educators to understand their legal responsibility in teaching all students with special needs. After reading information provided in this chapter, you should be able to:

·         Describe the federal definition of students with disabilities

·         Describe the criteria school systems can use to determine whether a student falls under one of the categories of disabilities

·         Describe key concepts/terms

·         List and describe federal legislation and court cases that have contributed to the movement toward educating students with disabilities in the classroom

·         List and describe the continuum of settings school systems can use to educate students with disabilities

·         List and describe characteristics of effective inclusion programs

·         List and describe the advantages and disadvantages of inclusion

 

Chapter 2: Federal Laws & Regulations

Chapter 2 focuses on the federal laws and regulations. It is important that you understand these since they do govern your school and your classroom. Reading and hearing about this information can become overwhelming, so take your time moving through this section. Having a good foundational knowledge of the laws and regulations will help you apply strategies that will be discussed later in the course. After reading the information provided in this chapter, you should be able to:

·         List and describe legal procedures and criteria school systems and educators are required to use in evaluating, identifying, and educating students with disabilities, and the special education and related services needed;

·         List and describe the provisions specified under IDEA, and the mandate each provision specifies school systems must use in working with students with special needs;

·         List and describe the provisions specified under federal regulations and procedures school systems must use in working with students with special needs;

·         Describe the special education and related services school systems are mandated to provide to students with disabilities;

·         Describe the procedural safeguards parents of students with disabilities are granted under IDEA;

·         Describe the civil rights students with disabilities are granted under Section 504, and ADA;

·         Describe the purpose of an Individualized Education Program (IEP) and an Individualized Family Service Plan and the components or information that needs to be specified in each document;

·         List and describe the similarities and differences between regulations for the various education-related acts; 

·         List and describe procedures school systems are expected to go through at the pre-referral and referral stages;

·         List and describe the Response to Intervention (RTI) process, and procedures school systems are expected to go through before a child is referred for an in-depth assessment, for the purpose of determining whether he/she has a disability and/or is labeled as a student with a specific learning disability;

·         Describe the roles and responsibilities of teachers, school-based problem solving team members, and the multidisciplinary (IEP) team in identifying and providing special education and related services to students with special needs; and

·         Describe procedures special and general educators can use to determine whether students with disabilities can be educated in the general education classroom.

 

Chapter 3: Special & General Educator Collaboration

This chapter focuses on the impact the movement toward educating students with special needs in the general education classroom has had on the roles and responsibilities of special and general educators, strategies teachers can use to work collaboratively, and procedures teachers can use to determine whether students need accommodations and modifications. After reading information provided in this chapter, you should be able to:

·         Describe the impact the movement toward educating students with special needs in the general education classroom has had on teachers;

·         Describe the role and responsibilities of teachers in terms of educating students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms;

·         Define the term “collaboration” and describe different collaborative models special and general educators can use to provide special education and related services to students educated in general education classrooms (e.g. co-teaching);

·         List and describe characteristics that must be in place for special and general educators to collaborate successfully; and

·         List and describe the steps special and general educators should go through in setting up their own collaborative efforts.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4: Differentiated Instruction, Accommodations, & Modifications

Chapter four focuses on why special and general educators need to differentiate instruction and provide instructional and assessment accommodations and modifications for students educated in inclusive classrooms. After reading the information provided in this chapter, you should be able to:

·         Specify regulations that mandate that students should be provided with adaptations;

·         Define the terms “differentiated instruction,” “curricular adaptations,” “accommodations,” and “modifications”;

·         List and describe instructional accommodations and modifications teachers can provide to students educated in inclusive classrooms;

·         List and describe the steps special and general educators can use to determine accommodations and modifications students may require in inclusive classrooms;

·         Describe steps special and general educators can go through in determining whether a student will or will not participate in state- or district-wide assessment programs; and

·         List and describe types of assessment accommodations teachers can provide for students during testing. 

 

Chapter 5: Methods for the Classroom

Chapter five focuses on procedures special and general educators can use to structure their classroom environment and manage students’ behaviors. After reading information provided in this chapter, you should be able to:

·         List and describe factors that may result in students’ inappropriate classroom behavior;

·         Define “functional assessment” and describe procedures educators can use to evaluate their classroom setting;

·         List and describe strategies educators can use to structure their classroom setting and increase students’ appropriate classroom behavior and decrease inappropriate classroom behavior; and

·         List and describe the importance of identifying the relationship between students’ behaviors and learning.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Student Expectations 

As a student you will be expected to:

·         Complete all four information sections showing a competent understanding of the material presented in each section.

·         Complete all four section examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.  You must obtain an overall score of 70% or higher, with no individual exam score below 50%, to pass this course.  *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.

·         Complete a review of any section on which your examination score was below 50%.

·         Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 50%, making sure to also be achieving an overall exam score of a minimum 70% (maximum of three attempts). *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.

·         Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Examinations

At the end of each chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your

knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score. 

After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access.  Your final grade for the

course will be determined by calculating an average score of all exams.  This score will be printed on your final

certificate.  As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as

often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you

try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to

complete the entire exam in one sitting.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Instructor Description

Karen Lea holds a Ph.D. in education. Dr. Lea has fifteen years’ experience teaching at the K-12 level and another fourteen years’ experience teaching education courses at the undergraduate and post-graduate level. Currently she is an Assessment Developer at Western Governor's University. Dr. Lea has been professionally published over fifteen times and has served on over a dozen panels and boards, including serving on the NCATE (CAEP) Board of Examiners.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Contacting the Instructor

You may contact the instructor by emailing karen_lea@virtualeduc.com or by calling (509) 891-7219 Monday through Friday. Calls made during office hours will be answered within 24 hours. Phone conferences will be limited to ten minutes per student, per day, given that this is a self-paced instructional program. Please do not contact the instructor about technical problems, course glitches, or other issues that involve the operation of the course.

                                                                                                                                                            _____________

Technical Questions

If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.

 

If you need personal assistance then email support@virtualeduc.com or call (509) 891-7219.  When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call. 

 

Minimum Computer Requirements

Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted and how to submit your completed information. The addendum will also note any additional course assignments that you may be required to complete that are not listed in this syllabus.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Bibliography (Suggested reading)

Adelson, J. L., Barton, E., Bradshaw, C., Bryant, B., Bryant, D., Cook, B. G. … Troia, G. A. (2019, February 18). A roadmap for transparent research in special education and related disciplines. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/sqfy3

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Bateman, B., Lloyd, J. W., & Tankersley, M. (2015). Enduring issues in special education: Personal perspectives. New York, NY: Routledge.

Billingsley, B., Bettini, E., & Jones, N. D. (2019). Supporting special education teacher induction through high-leverage practices, 40(6), 365–379.

Brady, K. P. ,Russo, C. J., Dieterich, C. A., & Osborne, A. G. (2019). Legal issues in special education: Principles, policies, and practices (1st ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Brown v. Board of Education. 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

Chandler, L., & Dahlquist, C. (2014). Functional assessment: Strategies to prevent and remediate challenging behaviors in school settings (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

de Jesus, D. M., Pantaleão, E., & de Almeida, M. L. (2015). Continuing education for public administrators in special education: Local policy for school inclusion. Education Policy Analysis Archives23, 29. doi:10.14507/epaa.v23.1648

Council for Exceptional Children. (2015). What every special educator must know: Ethics, standards, and guidelines for special education. Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.

Dettmer, P., Thurston, L., Knackendoffel, A., & Dyck, N. (2012). Collaboration, consultation and teamwork for students with special needs (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Emmer, E., & Evertson, C. (2016). Classroom management for middle and high school teachers (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Evers, R., & Spencer, S. (2011). Planning effective instruction for students with learning and behavior problems (1st ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Evertson, C., & Emmer, E. (2012). Classroom management for elementary teachers (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Flick, G. (2011). Understanding and managing emotional and behavioral disorders in the classroom (1st ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Friend, M. (2011). Special education: Contemporary perspectives for school professionals (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. (2019). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

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Garguilo, R. M., & Bouck, E. C. (2017). Instructional strategies for students with mild, moderate, and severe intellectual disability. Los Angeles: SAGE.

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Henley, M. (2010). Classroom management: A proactive approach (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Henninger, W. R., & Gupta, W. W. (2014). How do children benefit from inclusion? Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Heward, W. (2017). Exceptional children: An introduction to special education (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Hoover, J. (2009). Differentiating learning differences from disabilities: Meeting diverse needs through multi-tiered Response to Intervention (1st ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, 20, U.S.C §1400 et seq.

Kauffman, J. M. (2015). Opinion on recent developments and the future of special education. Remedial and Special Education36(1), 9–13.

Kauffman, J., Pullen, P., & Mostert, M. (2011). Managing classroom behaviors: A reflective case-based approach (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Kerr, M., & Nelson, C. (2010). Strategies for addressing behavior problems in the classrooms (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Levin, J., & Nolan, J. (2013). Principles of classroom management: A professional decision-making model (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Marx, T. (2016). How can ESSA help students with disabilities? American Institutes for Research. https://www.air.org/resource/how-can-essa-help-students-disabilities

Mastropieri, M., & Scruggs, T. (2017). Inclusive classrooms: The strategies for effective instruction (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

McLeskey, J., Rosenberg, M., & Westling, D. (2017). Inclusion: Highly effective practices for all students (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

McLeskey, J. Billingsley, B., & Brownell, M. T. (2019). What are high-leverage practices for special education teachers and why are they important? Remedial and Special Education, 40(6), 331–337.

Mercer, C., & Mercer, A. (2011). Teaching students with learning problems (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Murdick, N., Gartin, B., & Crabtree, T. (2013). Special education law (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

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Peterson, M., & Hittie, M. (2010). Inclusive teaching: The journey towards effective schools for all learners (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Polloway, E., Patton, J., & Serna, L. (2012). Strategies for teaching learners with special needs (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Project IDEAL (2017). Other health impairments. http://www.projectidealonline.org/v/health-impairments/

Rosenberg, M., Westing, D., & McLeskey, J. (2011). Special education for today’s teachers: An introduction (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall Inc.

Sacramento City Unified School District v. Holland, 786 F.Supp.874 (E.D. Cal. 1992)

Salend, S. (2011). Creating inclusive classrooms: Effective and reflective practices (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Shepard, T. (2010). Working with students with emotional and behavioral disorders: Characteristics and teaching strategies (1st ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Smith, D., & Tyler, N. (2010). Introduction to special education: Making a difference (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Smith, T., Polloway, E., & Patton, J. (2011). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Turnbull, A., Turnbull, H., Erwin, E., Soodak, L., & Shogren, K. (2014). Families, professionals, and exceptionality: Positive outcomes through partnerships and trust (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Turnbull, A., Turnbull, H., & Wehmeyer, M. (2012). Exceptional lives: Special education in today’s schools (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. (2015). Strategies for teaching students with learning and behavior problems (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. (2019). Strategies for teaching students with learning and behavior problems (10th ed.). London, UK: Pearson.

Vaughn, S., Bos, C., & Schumm, J. (2017). Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at-risk in the general education classroom (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Voltz, D. L. (2019). Diversity issues and the special education teaching force: Advancing the discussion. Remedial and Special Education, 40(4), 261–264.

Wheeler, J., & Richey, D. (2019). Behavior management: Principles and practices of positive behavior supports (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Yell, M. L. (2018). The law and special education (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, MJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Yell, M., Shriner, J., Meadows, N., & Drasgow, E. (2013). Evidence based practices for educating students with emotional and behavioral disorders (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Course content is updated every three years. Due to this update timeline, some URL links may no longer be active or may have changed. Please type the title of the organization into the command line of any Internet browser search window and you will be able to find whether the URL link is still active or any new link to the corresponding organization's web home page.

10/21/20  JN