Infant & Toddler Mental Health:
Issues & Information for Educators
Dr. Pamela Bernards, Ed.D.
Aumony Dahl, M.Ed.
8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday
Virtual Education Software
23403 E Mission Avenue, Suite 220F
Liberty Lake, WA 99019
Welcome to Infant & Toddler Mental Health: Issues & Information for Educators, an interactive computer-based instruction course designed to help you achieve a better understanding of infant and toddler mental health, child development, and strategies you can use to promote positive relationships with children and their families. This course provides information that will help you to understand and identify your role as a child care provider, educator, and early childhood professional. Infant & Toddler Mental Health will provide you with research-based information on early child development, attachment, temperament, and curriculum. This course also lists resources for both teachers and parents who would like more help or information about infant and toddler mental health.
This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer. Technical support information can be found in the Help section of your course.
Course Materials (Online)
Infant & Toddler Mental Health: Issues & Information for Educators
Virtual Education Software, inc. 2007, Revised 2010, Revised 2014, Revised 2018, Revised 2021
Dr. Pamela Bernards, Ed.D.
Aumony Dahl, M.Ed.
The structure and format of most distance-learning courses presume a high level of personal and academic integrity in completion and submission of coursework. Individuals enrolled in a distance-learning course are expected to adhere to the following standards of academic conduct.
Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed, in part or in whole, to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.
The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.
Violations of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.
This course is designed to be an informational course with application to early childhood education or childcare settings. The curriculum and strategies presented are designed for children from birth to thirty-six months of age. Some alterations may be needed when working with children with sensory processing disorders or other developmental disabilities. This course also incorporates the applicable Division for Early Childhood (DEC) Recommended Practices in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education, in addition to the newest National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Accreditation Standards (2018), and the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), which was signed into law on December 10, 2015. ESSA both sustains and expands the nation's investment in increasing access to high-quality early childhood education for all children. This course is designed for anyone planning programs for young children: childcare providers, early childhood educators, and healthcare or social services providers, to name a few.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>To define infant and toddler mental health and explain why it is so important;
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>To discuss core concepts in early development from birth to thirty-six months;
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>To explore current research on brain development, including examining conditions for healthy development and the effect of adverse experiences;
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>To increase the ability to observe typically developing infants and toddlers, as well as to identify infants and toddlers with mental health issues;
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>To provide information and best practice methods used in the care of infants and toddlers and their families;
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>To increase knowledge in the research areas of attachment and temperament; and
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>To provide resources for early childhood educators and care-providers to help them strengthen the children and families with whom they work.
The Infant & Toddler Mental Health course has been divided into four chapters that are designed to inform parents, professionals, and care providers by: providing an overview of the core concepts of early development; reviewing developmental milestones; exploring current research on brain development; examining what curriculum looks like for infants and toddlers; exploring the importance of early attachment; reviewing different temperament traits; and providing suggestions for strengthening families. Upon completing this course you should have the basic framework for understanding the critical role of infant and toddler mental health, as well as developmental knowledge of children from birth to thirty-six months.
As a student you will be expected to:
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Complete all four information sections showing a competent understanding of the material presented in each section.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Complete all four section examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented. You must obtain an overall score of 70% or higher, with no individual exam score below 50%, and successfully complete ALL writing assignments to pass this course. *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Complete a review of any section on which your examination score was below 50%.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 50%, making sure to also be achieving an overall exam score of a minimum 70% (maximum of three attempts). *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Complete all course journal article and essay writing assignments with the minimum word count shown for each writing assignment.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.
Chapter One is an Introduction to Infant & Toddler Mental Health. In this chapter we will clarify what infant and toddler mental health is, discuss why it is so important, and review three core concepts of early development. We will look at current research on brain development and discuss optimal conditions for the development of brain architecture in young children. We will also look at the life-long implications that adverse early childhood experiences have on the developing brain. Lastly, we will discuss how the interaction of biology, relationships, and environment impacts brain development in very young children, and review the core values that support the philosophy of this course.
In Chapter Two we will look at child development from infancy to thirty-six months. We will briefly review what experts have to say about the following topics related to child development: child development theory, development of emotions, development of self, human development, SIDS, brain development, nutrition, development of vision and hearing, and finally, language development.
In Chapter Three we will discuss the importance of infant and toddler curriculum. You will learn some vital information concerning curriculum, such as what is appropriate, what is meaningful, and what promotes the relationship between you, the child, and the child's family. We will review the latest information about play and how it benefits a child’s development. Finally, we will discuss school-readiness and look at several key characteristics of school-ready children.
In Chapter Four we will discuss the important role attachment plays in the development of young children. We will discuss different types of attachment and examine several risk factors that impede healthy attachment in young children. We will look at methods for fostering secure attachment. We will define temperament, examine specific temperament traits, and review research about the impact of temperament on child development. We will discuss numerous practical strategies for supporting all children, regardless of their temperament. Finally, we will briefly discuss variables such as language and literacy, culture, gender, race, and socio-economic status that may influence connections with families (these variables will be thoroughly examined in another course in this series called Family-Centered Services). We will explore ways in which we can work to strengthen families, which ultimately has a positive impact on the well-being of the children we serve.
At the end of each chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score. After your third attempt, each examination will lock and prevent further access. The average from your exam scores will be printed on your certificate. However, this is not your final grade since your required writing assignments have not been reviewed. Exceptionally written or poorly written required writing assignments, or violation of the academic integrity policy in the course syllabus, will affect your grade. As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam section before answering all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.
All assignments are reviewed and may impact your final grade. Exceptionally or poorly written assignments, or violation of the Academic Integrity Policy (see course syllabus for policy), will affect your grade. Fifty percent of your grade is determined by your writing assignments, and your overall exam score determines the other fifty percent. Refer to the Essay Grading Guidelines which were sent as an attachment with your original course link. You should also refer to the Course Syllabus Addendum which was sent as an attachment with your original course link, to determine if you have any writing assignments in addition to the Critical Thinking Questions (CTQ) and Journal Article Summations (JAS). If you do, the Essay Grading Guidelines will also apply.
Your writing assignments must meet the minimum word count and are not to include the question or your final citations as part of your word count. In other words, the question and citations are not to be used as a means to meet the minimum word count.
There are four CTQs that you are required to complete. You will need to write a minimum of 500 words (maximum 1,000) per essay. You should explain how the information that you gained from the course will be applied and clearly convey a strong understanding of the course content as it relates to each CTQ. To view the questions, click on REQUIRED ESSAY and choose the CTQ that you are ready to complete; this will bring up a screen where you may enter your essay. Prior to course submission, you may go back at any point to edit your essay, but you must be certain to click SAVE once you are done with your edits.
You must click SAVE before you write another essay or move on to another part of the course.
You are required to write, in your own words, a summary on a total of three peer-reviewed or scholarly journal articles (one article per JAS), written by an author with a Ph.D., Ed.D. or similar, on the topic outlined within each JAS section in the “Required Essays” portion of the course (blogs, abstracts, news articles or similar are not acceptable). Your article choice must relate specifically to the discussion topic listed in each individual JAS. You will choose a total of three relevant articles (one article per JAS) and write a thorough summary of the information presented in each article (you must write a minimum of 200 words with a 400 word maximum per JAS). Be sure to provide the URL or the journal name, volume, date, and any other critical information to allow the facilitator to access and review each article.
To write your summary, click on REQUIRED ESSAYS and choose the JAS that you would like to complete. A writing program will automatically launch where you can write your summary. When you are ready to stop, click SAVE. Prior to course submission you may go back at any point to edit your summaries but you must be certain to click SAVE once you are done with your edits. For more information on the features of this assignment, please consult the HELP menu.
You must click SAVE before you write another summary or move on to another part of the course.
Aumony Dahl received her Master’s degree in Exceptional Children from Western Washington University. She is certified to teach in K–12 Special Education with an additional endorsement in Early Childhood Special Education. Aumony began her career working as an elementary special education teacher for several years. She is currently an instructor in the Special Education Department at Western Washington University, teaching a variety of classes on topics related to early childhood special education, students with complex special needs, assessment and evaluation, and program planning. Aumony is also a supervisor for practicum students who are training to become teachers. In addition to this course, Aumony has authored other courses in this Early Childhood series—Early Childhood: Program Planning and Early Childhood: Family-Centered Services. Please contact Professor Dahl if you have course content or examination questions.
Pamela Bernards has 30 years of combined experience in diverse PK–8 and high school settings as a teacher and an administrator. In addition to these responsibilities, she was the founding director of a K–8 after school care program and founder of a pre-school program for infants to 4-year-olds to address all early childhood issues. When she was a principal, her school was named a U.S. Department of Education Blue Ribbon School of Excellence. More recently, the school in which she serves as curriculum coordinator was named a 2010 Blue Ribbon School. Areas of interest include curriculum, research-based teaching practices, staff development, assessment, data-driven instruction, and instructional intervention with exceptional populations. She received a doctorate in Leadership and Professional Practice from Trevecca Nazarene University. Please contact Professor Dahl if you have course content or examination questions.
You may contact the facilitator by emailing Professor Dahl at firstname.lastname@example.org or calling her at 509-891-7219, Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. PST. Phone messages will be answered within 24 hours. Phone conferences will be limited to ten minutes per student, per day, given that this is a self-paced instructional program. Please do not contact the instructor about technical problems, course glitches, or other issues that involve the operation of the course.
If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists, please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.
If you need personal assistance, then email email@example.com or call (509) 891-7219. When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call.
Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.
Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted and how to submit your completed information. The addendum will also note any additional course assignments that you may be required to complete that are not listed in this syllabus.
Ainsworth, M., & Bowlby, J. (1965). Child care and the growth of love. Penguin Books.
Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Bell, S. M. (1970). Attachment, exploration, and separation: Illustrated by the behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation. Child Development, 41, 49–67. https://doi.org/10.2307/1127388
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Erlbaum.
American Institutes for Research, MDRC, MEF Associates, and Child Trends. (2014). Head Start professional development: Design options and considerations for an evaluation of Head Start coaching. E. C. Howard & K. V. Drummond (Eds.). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.
Berk, L. (2005). Infants and children (5th ed.). Pearson Education.
Bohart, H. & Procopio, R. (2017). Spotlight on Young Children: Social and Emotional Development. Washington, D.C. National Association for the Education of Young Children.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment. Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Loss. Basic Books.
Bredekamp, S., & Copple, C. (Eds.) (2009). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs: Serving children from birth through age 8 (3rd ed.). NAEYC.
Bretherton, I. (1992). The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, 28, 759–775. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1689
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Harvard University Press.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (2004). Making human beings human: Bioecological perspectives on human development. Sage.
Brymer, M., Schreiber, M., Gurwitch, R., Hoffman, D., Graham, M., Garst, L., & Speier, A. (2020). Parent/Caregiver guide to helping families cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. National Center for Child Traumatic Stress. https://www.nctsn.org/resources/parent-caregiver-guide-to-helping-families-cope-with-the-coronavirus-disease-2019
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2014). Enhancing and practicing executive function skills with children from infancy to adolescence. https://developingchild.harvard.edu/resources/activities-guide-enhancing-and-practicing-executive-function-skills-with-children-from-infancy-to-adolescence/
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2016). From best practices to breakthrough impacts: A science-based approach to building a more promising future for young children and families. http://www.developingchild.harvard.edu
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2011b). Three core concepts in early development [Video file]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VNNsN9IJkws&list=PL0DB506DEF92B6347
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2014a). Inbrief: Early childhood mental health. https://developingchild.harvard.edu/resources/inbrief-early-childhood-mental-health/
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2014b). Key concepts: Brain architecture. http://developingchild.harvard.edu/key_concepts/brain_architecture/
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2014c). Key concepts: Executive function. http://developingchild.harvard.edu/key_concepts/executive_function/
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2014d). Key concepts: Serve and return. http://developingchild.harvard.edu/key_concepts/serve_and_return/
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2014e). Key concepts: Toxic stress. http://developingchild.harvard.edu/key_concepts/toxic_stress_response/
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2021). An Action Guide for Policymakers, Connecting the Brain to the Rest of the Body; Health and Learning Are Deeply Interconnected in the Body (Working Paper No. 15). https://46y5eh11fhgw3ve3ytpwxt9r-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/2020_WP15_actionguide_FINAL.pdf
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (n.d.). InBrief: The impact of early adversity on children's development. http://developingchild.harvard.edu/index.php/resources/briefs/inbrief_series/inbrief_the_impact_of_early_adversity/
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Health equity considerations and racial and ethnic minority groups. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/health-equity/race-ethnicity.html
Clothier, S., Cohen, J., Onunaku, N., & Poppe, J. (2005). Helping young children succeed: Strategies to promote early childhood social and emotional development. Early Childhood Research and Policy Report to the National Conference of State Legislatures.
Cuellar, R., Rains, M., Hendricks, A., Hirsh-Wright, A., Valenti, S, Grosso, C., Louie, K. & Brymer M. (2020). Pause – Reset – Nourish (PRN)* to promote wellbeing: Use as needed to care for your wellness! National Center for Child Traumatic Stress.
Division for Early Childhood. (2014). DEC recommended practices in early intervention/early childhood special education 2014. http://www.dec-sped.org/recommendedpractices
Division for Early Childhood (DEC) and IDEA Infant & Toddler Coordinators Association (ITCA). (2020). Service coordination in early intervention: Joint position statement. https://www.ideainfanttoddler.org/pdf/DEC-ITCA-Service-Coordination-in-Early-Intervention-Joint-Position-Statement.pdf
Early Head Start. (n.d.). School readiness: It’s all about relationships. https://www.kipscoaching.com/early-head-start-school-readiness-its-all-about-relationships/
Elkind, D. (2001). The hurried child: Growing up too fast too soon (3rd ed.). Perseus.
Faria, A.-M., Greenberg, A., DeSousa, J.-M., Hawkinson, L., Hamilton, E., & Scott, L. (2015). Quality rating and improvement systems (QRIS) in early childhood care and education: Lessons learned from seven Midwest states. Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest, American Institutes for Research.
Goossens, F., & van Ijzendoorn, M. (1990). Quality of infants’ attachment to professional caregivers: Relation to infant-parent attachment and day-care characteristics. Child Development, 61, 832–837. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1990.tb02825.x
Gonzalez-Mena, J., & Widmeyer Eyer, D. (2001). Infants, toddlers, and caregivers (5th ed.). Mayfield.
Hanline, M. F., Wetherby, A., Woods, J., Fox, L., & Lentini, R. (2005). Positive beginnings: Supporting young children with challenging behavior. Positive Beginnings.
Heidemann, S., & Hewitt, D. (1992). Pathways to play. Redleaf Press.
Howard, E. (2015). What matters most for children: Influencing inequality at the start of life. American Institutes for Research. https://www.air.org/resource/what-matters-most-children-influencing-inequality-start-life
Jakobsen, I., Horwood, L. J., & Fergusson, D. M. (2012). Childhood anxiety/withdrawal, adolescent parent-child attachment and later risk of depression and anxiety disorder. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 21(2), 303–310. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-011-9476-x
Landy, S. (2002). Pathways to competency: Encouraging health social and emotional development in young children. Paul H. Brooks.
Lentini, R., Vaughn, B. J., & Fox, L. (2004). Routine based support guide for young children with challenging behavior. https://www.ecmhc.org/TTYC/documents/Folder1TipsForms/File%20G%20Routine%20Based%20Support%20Guide/Routine%20Based%20Support%20Guide%20Rev1209.pdf
Lentini, R., Vaughn, B. J., & Fox, L. (2008). Creating teaching tools for young children with challenging behavior. Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention. https://www.ecmhc.org/TTYC/
Maguire-Fong, M. J. (2020) Teaching and learning with infants and toddlers: Where meaning-making begins (2nd ed.). Teachers College Press.
Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of a new, insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. In T. B. Brazelton & M. Yogman (Eds.), Affective development in infancy (pp. 95–124). Ablex.
McCarthy, C. (2017, June 13). Resilience: A skill your child really needs to learn [Web log post]. Harvard Health Publishing. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/resilience-a-skill-your-child-really-needs-to-learn-and-what-you-can-do-to-help-2017061311899
McLeod, S. (2008). Mary Ainsworth: The strange situation. Simply Psychology. http://www.simplypsychology.org/mary-ainsworth.html
Mendoza, J., Katz, L., Roberston, A. S., & Rothenburg, D. (2003). Connecting with parents in the early years. University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.
Moses, A., Powers, S., & Reschke, K. (2021). Social & emotional development: For our youngest learners & beyond. Young Children, 76(1). https://www.naeyc.org/resources/pubs/yc/spring2021/social-emotional-development-youngest-learners
NAEYC [National Association for the Education of Young Children]. (2018). NAEYC early learning program accreditation standards and assessment items. https://www.naeyc.org/sites/default/files/globally-shared/downloads/PDFs/accreditation/early-learning/standards_assessment_2019.pdf
NAEYC. (2021). Principles of effective family engagement. https://www.naeyc.org/resources/topics/family-engagement/principles
NAEYC. (n.d.). 10 effective DAP teaching strategies. https://www.naeyc.org/sites/default/files/globally-shared/downloads/PDFs/resources/topics/inforgraphic_DAP_2%202.pdf
National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation. (2007). Early childhood program evaluations: A decision-maker’s guide. http://www.developingchild.harvard.edu
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). (1997). The effects of infant child care on infant-mother attachment security: Results of the NICHD study of early childcare. Early Childcare Research Network. Child Development, 68, 860–879. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1997.tb01967.x
National Research Council. (2008). Early childhood assessment: Why, what, and how. https://doi.org/10.17226/12446
National Research Council & Institute of Medicine. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Jack P. Shonkoff and Deborah A. Phillips (Eds.). National Academies Press.
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2008/2012). Establishing a level foundation for life: Mental health begins in early childhood (Working paper No. 6) (Updated ed.). http://www.developingchild.harvard.edu
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2014). Excessive stress disrupts the architecture of the developing brain (Working Paper No. 3; Updated ed.). http://developingchild.harvard.edu/index.php/resources/reports_and_working_papers/working_papers/wp3/
NCECQA. (n.d.). About QRIS. https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/about-us/article/national-center-early-childhood-quality-assurance-ncecqa
NIDA. (2016, March 9). Principles of substance abuse prevention for early childhood. https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-substance-abuse-prevention-early-childhood
Onunaku, N. (2005). Improving maternal and infant mental health: Focus on maternal depression. National Center for Infant and Early Childhood Health Policy at UCLA.
Parlakian, P., & Seibel, N. L. (2002). Building strong foundations, practical guidance for promoting the social-emotional development of infants and toddlers. Zero to Three.
Pawl, J. H., & Dombro, A. L. (2001). Learning and growing together with families: Partnering with parents to support young children’s development. Zero to Three.
Pbworks. (n.d.). What is early childhood social and emotional development? http://www.earlychildhoodconnections.com/Index_htm_files/Soc%20Emo%20Informational%20Flyer.pdf
Petersen, S. (2012). Approaches to learning: Supporting brain development for school success. Zero to Three, 33(1), 24–27.
QRIS National Learning Network. (2015). QRIS state contacts & map. https://ww2.eventrebels.com/er/CFP/OnlineSubmissionEMailLogin.jsp?CFPID=671&Submit=Reset&Token=BGAAQZ58XV574BKA2TZXQUT9HS
Rogers, S., & Sawyers, J. (1988). Play in the lives of children. NAEYC.
Sagi, A., Koren-Karie, N., Gini, M., Ziv, Y., & Joels, T. (2002). Shedding further light on the effects of various types and quality of early childcare on infant-mother attachment relationship: The Haifa study of early childcare. Child Development, 73, 116–118. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00465
Schaffer, H. R., & Emerson, P. E. (1964). The development of social attachments in infancy. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 29(3), 1–77. https://doi.org/10.2307/1165727
Trent, M., Dooley, D. G., & Dougé, J. (2019). The impact of racism on child and adolescent health. Pediatrics, 144(2). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-1765
U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey. (2017). 2016 annual social and economic supplement. Tables POV01, POV03, POV13, POV21, POV40, and 3.
U.S. Census Bureau. (2017). Poverty thresholds for 2016 by size of family and number of related children under 18 years. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/demo/income-poverty/historical-poverty-thresholds.html
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman, Eds.). Harvard University Press.
Zeanah, C. H. (Ed.). (2009). Handbook of infant mental health (3rd ed.). Guilford Press.
Zero to Three. (n.d.) From science to public policy: Promoting policies that support early childhood emotional and social development. https://www.zerotothree.org/policy-and-advocacy
Zero to Three. (n.d.). Getting ready for school begins at birth. http://www.zerotothree.org/child-development/social-emotional-development/gettingreadyforschoolbeginsatbirth.pdf
Zero to Three. (n.d.). The school-ready child [Infographic]. http://www.zerotothree.org/public-policy/school-readiness-infographic.html
Zero to Three. (2005). Diagnostic classification of mental health and developmental disorders of infancy and early childhood (Revised edition). Zero to Three. http://www.zerotothree.org/
Zigler, E., Singer, D., & Bishop-Josef, S. (Eds.). (2004). Children’s play: The roots of reading. Zero to Three.
American Academy of Pediatrics (http://www.aap.org)
American Institute for Research (https://www.air.org/)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website (www.cdc.gov)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (http://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/specific-groups/children-faq.html)
Center for Parent Information and Resources (http://www.parentcenterhub.org/)
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University (https://developingchild.harvard.edu/)
Child Welfare Information Gateway (https://www.childwelfare.gov/)
Council for Exceptional Children (http://www.cec.sped.org)
Early Learning Challenge Technical Assistance (ELCTA) Program (https://www.acf.hhs.gov/ecd/early-learning/race-top)
Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) (https://www.ed.gov/essa?src=ft)
Global Family Research Project (https://globalfrp.org/)
High/Scope Educational Research Foundation (http://www.highscope.org)
National Association for the Education of Young Children (http://naeyc.org)
National Association of Counsel for Children (http://www.naccchildlaw.org/)
National Center on Accessible Educational Materials (http://aem.cast.org/)
National Center on Early Childhood Quality Assurance (https://childcareta.acf.hhs.gov/centers/national-center-early-childhood-quality-assurance)
National Child Traumatic Stress Network (http://www.nctsn.org/)
National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (https://fpg.unc.edu/projects/national-early-childhood-technical-assistance-center-nectac)
Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS) (https://ecquality.acf.hhs.gov/)
Technical Assistance Center on Social-Emotional Intervention for Young Children (http://challengingbehavior.fmhi.usf.edu/)
U.S. Department of Education-Early Learning (https://www2.ed.gov/about/inits/ed/earlylearning/index.html)
Vort Corporation (http://www.vort.com)
Zero to Three Organization (http://www.zerotothree.org)
Course content is updated every three years. Due to this update timeline, some URL links may no longer be active or may have changed. Please type the title of the organization into the command line of any Internet browser search window and you will be able to find whether the URL link is still active or any new link to the corresponding organization's web home page.
Updated 11/8/21 JN