Text, logo

Description automatically generated


English Language Learner: Language Acquisition


Instructor Name:

Dr. Karen Lea



Office Hours:

8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday




Virtual Education Software


23403 E Mission Avenue, Suite 220F


Liberty Lake, WA 99019

Technical Support:




English Language Learner: Language Acquisition was written to help teachers understand concepts and terms related to educating students whose first language is not English. This course discusses developmental theories and how they apply to English language learners. The focus of this course is on the process of second language acquisition and the role of the classroom teacher. Included in this course is information about literacy development, integration of language, co-teaching, ELL instructional needs, the legal obligations of schools and teachers to provide services, and the types of programs schools might provide. Also included is information about communicating with parents/guardians.


This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer. Technical support information can be found in the Help section of your course.



Course Materials (Online)


English Language Learner: Language Acquisition


Virtual Education Software, inc. 2019, Revised 2021


Dr. Karen Lea



Academic Integrity Statement

The structure and format of most distance-learning courses presume a high level of personal and academic integrity in completion and submission of coursework. Individuals enrolled in a distance-learning course are expected to adhere to the following standards of academic conduct.


Academic Work

Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed, in part or in whole, to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.


Aiding Honesty in Others

The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.


Violation of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.



Level of Application

This course is designed as an informational course for K–12 teachers, administrators, parents, and related service personnel. Information discussed is designed to help you better understand second language acquisition and current educational models being used to educate English language learners. This course will allow you to compare and identify how school districts in your own area are implementing English language learning programs, handling current issues, and some of the practices teachers are using to educate students and communicate with parents/guardians.



Expected Learning Outcomes

As a result of taking this course, participants will be able to demonstrate their ability to:

1.      Identify key legislation that affects the education of English language learners

2.      Apply knowledge of developmental theories to teaching English language learners

3.      Analyze language acquisition theories and processes at various stage of language development

4.      Review and discuss literacy development for ELL students

5.      Apply knowledge of diversity theories, equity theories, biases, and stereotypes

6.      Develop strategies for co-teaching across subject areas with English language learners

7.      Identify a personal cultural identity and drive

8.      Design curriculum that integrates language into the content of instruction

9.      Analyze how environment, community, family, and culture influences English language learners



Course Description

Information provided in this course has been divided into four chapters, which should be completed in the order in which they are presented in the program. Once you have completed these four chapters, you should have a better understanding of the concept of second language acquisition. You are strongly encouraged to read additional journal articles, books, and research materials outside the course material to gain a better understanding of current issues related to educating students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms.


Chapter 1: Developmental Theories

This chapter focuses on developmental theories and their application to second language acquisition. This is foundational knowledge educators should have to understand how to teach students who are English language learners.


Chapter 2: Language Acquisition

Chapter 2 focuses on the process of first and second language acquisition and how students learn BICS and CALPS. Understanding the process of learning a language is fundamental to teaching English language learners.


Chapter 3: Culture & Language

This chapter focuses on the relationship between culture and language and the importance of that relationship. Included are strategies for learning about the culture of students and families. Without a foundational understanding of culture, educators will not be able to adequately relate to all students and families.


Chapter 4: Programs/Home

Chapter four focuses on the various types of English language learner programs schools and districts might use. Included is a discussion on how to effectively communicate with parents/guardians.



Student Expectations       

As a student you will be expected to:

·         Complete all four information sections showing a competent understanding of the material presented in each section.

·         Complete all four section examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.  You must obtain an overall score of 70% or higher, with no individual exam score below 50%, to pass this course.  *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.

·         Complete a review of any section on which your examination score was below 50%.

·         Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 50%, making sure to also be achieving an overall exam score of a minimum 70% (maximum of three attempts). *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.

·         Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.



At the end of each chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score.  After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access.  Your final grade for the course will be determined by calculating an average score of all exams.  This score will be printed on your final certificate.  As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.



Karen Lea holds a Ph.D. in education. Dr. Lea has fifteen years’ experience teaching at the K–12 level and another fourteen years’ experience teaching education courses at the undergraduate and post-graduate levels. Currently she is a Team Lead/Assessment Developer/Instructional Developer at Western Governor’s University. Dr. Lea has been professionally published more than fifteen times and has served on more than a dozen panels and boards, including serving on the NCATE (CAEP) Board of Examiners.



Contacting the Instructor

You may contact the instructor by emailing karen_lea@virtualeduc.com or by calling (509) 891-7219 Monday through Friday. Calls made during office hours will be answered within 24 hours. Phone conferences will be limited to ten minutes per student, per day, given that this is a self-paced instructional program. Please do not contact the instructor about technical problems, course glitches, or other issues that involve the operation of the course.



Technical Questions

If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.


If you need personal assistance then email support@virtualeduc.com or call (509) 891-7219. When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call.


Minimum Computer Requirements

Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.


Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted and how to submit your completed information. The addendum will also note any additional course assignments that you may be required to complete that are not listed in this syllabus.



Bibliography (Suggested reading)

Altunel, V. (2015). The impact of extroversion and introversion on language learning in an input-based EFL setting (Master’s dissertation). University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS. Retrieved from https://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/bitstream/handle/1808/21595/ALTUNEL_ku_0099M_14242_DATA_1.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

American Councils for International Education. (2017). Dual language immersion will change achievement in American public schools. Retrieved from https://www.americancouncils.org/news/language-news/dual-language-immersion-will-change-achievement-american-public-schools

Bailik, K., Scheller, A., & Walker, K. (2018). 6 facts about English language learners in U.S. public schools. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/10/25/6-facts-about-english-language-learners-in-u-s-public-schools/

Baldasaro, T. (2012). Embracing introversion: Ways to stimulate reserved students in the classroom. Edutopia. Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/introverted-students-in-classroom-tony-baldasaro

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Banks, J. A., & McGee Banks, C. A. (1989). Multicultural education. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Boros, T. (2016). Language acquisition. University of Debrecen. Retrieved from https://dea.lib.unideb.hu/dea/handle/2437/226738?show=full

Bovitch, S., Cullimore, Z., Bramwell-Jones, T., Massas, E., & Perun, D. (2018). The educational theory of Noam Chomsky. New Foundations. Retrieved from http://www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Chomsky.html

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bruner, J. (1983). Child’s talk: Learning to use language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

CARLA [Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition]. (2021). What is culture? University of Minnesota. Retrieved from http://carla.umn.edu/culture/definitions.html

Changing Minds. (2017). Stereotypes. Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/stereotypes.htm

Chatham, A. (2020). U.S. detention of child migrants. Council of Foreign Relations. Retrieved from https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/us-detention-child-migrants

Cherry, K, (2020). Erik Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/erik-eriksons-stages-of-psychosocial-development-2795740

Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Collier, S., Burston, B., & Rhodes, A. (2016). Teaching STEM as a second language: Utilizing SLA to develop equitable learning for all students. Journal for Multicultural Education, 10(3), 257-273. doi:10.1108/JME-01-2016-0013

Colorado Springs School District 11. (n.d.). Instructional coach corner: Instructional practices: Eight components of Sheltered Instruction Observational Protocol (SIOP). Retrieved from http://hopemiddle.weebly.com/-8-components-of-siop.html

Conboy, B., Brooks, M., Meltzoff, A., & Kuhl, P. (2015). Social interaction in infants’ learning of second-language phonetics: An exploration of brain-behavior relations. Developmental Neuropsychology, 40(4), 216–229. doi:10.1080/87565641.2015.1014487

Cooper, A. (2017). Preparing all teachers to teach ELLs. Colorin Colorado! Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/preparing-all-teachers-teach-ells

Damen, L. (1987). Culture learning: The fifth dimension on the language classroom. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Derderian-Aghajanian, A., & Cong, W. C. (2012). How culture affects on English language leaners’ (ELL’s) outcomes, with Chinese and Middle Eastern immigrant students. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(5), 172–180. Retrieved from http://ijbssnet.com/journals/Vol_3_No_5_March_2012/20.pdf

The Education Alliance. (2005). The two-way immersion toolkit. Brown University. Retrieved from https://www.brown.edu/academics/education-alliance/sites/brown.edu.academics.education-alliance/files/publications/toolkit_all.pdf

Education Commission on the States. (2013). The progress of education reform. Retrieved from http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/01/10/20/11020.pdf

Education Week. (2017). Jim Rollins recognized for leadership in managing growth & demographic change. Leaders to Learn From. Retrieved from https://leaders.edweek.org/profile/jim-rollins-superintendent-managing-growth-demographic-change/

Elsac. (2017). Stages of language acquisition. Retrieved from https://enlsac2max.wordpress.com/stages-of-language-acquisition/

Fairbairn, S., & Jones-Vo, S. (2019). Differentiating instruction and assessment for ELLs with poster: A guide for K–12 teachers (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Caslon.

Filgona, J., Sakiyo, J. ,Gwany, D. M., & Okoronka, A. U. (2020). Motivation in learning. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, 10(4), 16–37. doi:10.9734/AJESS/2020/v10i430273

Fiske, S. (2015). A neural link between affective understanding and interpersonal attraction. National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(6), E2248–E2257. doi:10.1073/pnas.1516191113

Garcia, A. (2015). Creating a strong dual immersion program. New America. Retrieved from https://www.newamerica.org/education-policy/edcentral/beeman-part-two/

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Ginsburgh, V., Melitz, J., & Toubal, F. (2014, July). Foreign language learning: An econometric analysis. CEPii Working Paper. Retrieved from http://www.cepii.fr/PDF_PUB/wp/2015/wp2015-13.pdf

Goldin-Meadow, S. (2019). Theories of language acquisition. Retrieved from https://cpb-us-w2.wpmucdn.com/voices.uchicago.edu/dist/c/1286/files/2019/10/2019_theories-of-language-acquistion.pdf

Guy-Evans, O. (2020). Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/Bronfenbrenner.html

Hawk, B., & Rieder, D. (2017). Enculturation: A journal of writing and culture. Retrieved from http://enculturation.net/about

Hayes, A., & Mansour, N. (2016). Confidence in the knowledge base of English language learners studying science: Using agency to compensate for the lack of adequate linguistic identity. Research in Science Education, 47(2), 353–371. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11165-015-9504-8

Hegde, A. V., Hewett, B., & Terrell, E. (2016). Examination of teachers’ preparedness and strategies used to teach English language learners in kindergarten. Early Child Development and Care, 1–11. doi:10.1080/03004430.2016.1237513

Hein, K. (2017). Surefire tips for motivating ESL learners. Masters in ESL. Retrieved from http://mastersinesl.com/tips-for-motivating-esl-learners/

Henschel, K. (2012). Interactionist theory. Bright Hub Education. Retrieved from http://www.brighthubeducation.com/esl-teaching-tips/90410-the-interactionist-theory-of-language-acquisition-in-esl/

Highline College. (2021). First language acquisition. Retrieved from https://canvas.highline.edu/courses/1275198/pages/first-language-acquisition#:~:text=At%2018%20months%2C%2011%25%20of,still%20not%20doing%20so%20often.

Hill, J. D., & Bjork, C. L. (2008). Classroom instruction that works with English language learners. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Himmel, J. (2016). Language objectives: The key to effective content area instruction for English learners. Colorin Colorado! Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/language-objectives-key-effective-content-area-instruction-english-learners

Huseyin, O. (2014). Five big personality traits and willingness to communicate among foreign learners in Turkey. Social Behavior and Personality, 42(9), 1473–1482. doi:10.2224/sbp.2014.42.9.147

Josselson, R. (1987). Finding herself: Pathways to identity development in women. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Josselson, R. (1996). Revising herself: The story of women's identity from college to midlife. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

International Newcomer Academy. (2021). About our school. Retrieved from https://www.fwisd.org/domain/931

The IRIS Center. (2021). Page 1: English language learners. Retrieved from https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/ell/cresource/q1/p01/

The IRIS Center. (2008). RTI (part 5): A closer look at tier 3. Retrieved from https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/rti05-tier3/

The IRIS Center. (2006). RTI (part 3): Reading instruction. Retrieved from https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/rti03-reading/

IRIS Center. (2011). Teaching English language learners: Effective instructional practices. Retrieved from https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/ell/

Iris Center. (2016). Transitional bilingual education. Retrieved from https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/dll/cresource/q1/p01/

Kohlberg, L. (1981). The meaning and measure of moral development. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.

Kolke, D., & Lacorte, M. (2014, June 16). Toward intercultural competence: From questions to perspectives and practices of the target culture. Journal of Spanish Language and Teaching, 1, 15–30. doi:10.1080/23247797.2014.898497

Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall International.

Krashen, S. D. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford England: Pergamon.

Kung, H., Lee, C-Y., & Jiaoyu, S. (2016). Factors influencing junior high school students’ English language achievement in Taiwan: A Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system approach. Journal of Educational Practice and Research, 29(1), 35–66. Retrieved from https://doaj.org/article/6846123637c3494f841290311d7ddf2b

Kurt, S. (2020). Jean Piaget and his theory & stages of cognitive development. Retrieved from https://educationaltechnology.net/jean-piaget-and-his-theory-stages-of-cognitive-development/

Lederach, J. P. (1995). Preparing for peace: Conflict transformation across cultures. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Lee, J., & Heinz, M. (2016). English language learning strategies reported by advanced language learners.  Journal of International Education Research, 12(2), 67–76. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1096670.pdf

Lemetyinen, H. (2012). Language acquisition. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/language.html

Linton, R. (1945). The cultural background of personality. New York, NY: D. Appleton-Century.

Livermore, D. (2015). Leading with cultural intelligence: The real secret to success. New York, NY: American Management.

Mahn, H., & Fazalehaq, H. (2020). Vygotsky and second language acquisition. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342196944_Vygotsky_and_Second_Language_Acquisition

Mansori, M. (2017). 4 parent engagement strategies for English language learners. Getting Smart. Retrieved from http://www.gettingsmart.com/2016/03/4-parent-engagement-strategies-english-language-learners

Marcia, J. E., Waterman, A. S., Matteson, D. R., Archer, S. L., & Orlofsky, J. L. (1993). Ego identity: A handbook for psychological research. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

Marian, V., Shook, A., & Schroeder, S. (2013). Bilingual two-way immersion programs benefit academic achievement. Bilingual Research Journal, 36, 167–186. doi:10.1080/15235882.2013.818075

Markos, A., Himmel, J. (2016). Using sheltered instruction to support English leaners. CAL Practitioner Brief, March, pp. 1–16. Retrieved from http://www.cal.org/siop/pdfs/briefs/using-sheltered-instruction-to-support-english-learners.pdf

Markova, I. (2016). Effects of academic and non-academic instructional approaches on preschool English language learners’ classroom engagement and English language development. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 15(4), 339–358. doi:10.1177/1476718X15609390

Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

McGowan, K. (2013). When we stop counting: An interview with Supt. Kyle McGowan. Colorin Colorado! Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/when-we-stop-counting-interview-supt-kyle-mcgowan

Mevs, I. M. (2020). Drawing inspiration from her “Heroes and Sheroes.” Colorin Colorado. Retrieved from https://www.colorincolorado.org/article/drawing-inspiration-her-heroes-and-sheroes

Migration Policy Institute. (2016). NCIIP: English learners and the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). Retrieved from http://www.migrationpolicy.org/programs/english-learners-and-every-student-succeeds-act

Mwanza, D. S. (2017). The eclectic approach to language teaching: Its conceptualization and misconceptions. International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education, 4(2), 53–67. Retrieved from https://www.arcjournals.org/pdfs/ijhsse/v4-i2/6.pdf

National Center for Education Statistics. (2020). English language learners in public schools. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cgf.asp

New Jersey Department of Education. (2016). Bilingual/ESL education. Retrieved from http://www.state.nj.us/education/bilingual/ell_mainstream/part_two/adaptation.html

Noonoo, S. (2017). How apps are helping ELL parents learn alongside their student. Getting Smart. Retrieved from http://www.gettingsmart.com/2017/04/smartphone-apps-helping-ell-parents-learn-alongside-student/

Ohio Department of Education. (2021). English learners. Retrieved from http://education.ohio.gov/Topics/Student-Supports/English-Learners

Paul, A. M. (2016, May 1). Where bias begins: The truth about stereotypes. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/199805/where-bias-begins-the-truth-about-stereotypes

Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2021). English as a second language. Retrieved from http://www.education.pa.gov/Teachers%20-%20Administrators/Curriculum/English%20As%20A%20Second%20Language/Pages/default.aspx#tab-1

Porter, M. (2017, January 29). For children of bilingual parents, West Hartford School offers parent read-aloud program. Hartford Courant. Retrieved from http://www.courant.com/community/west-hartford/hc-west-hartford-webster-school-cantonese-read-aloud-20170127-story.html

Psychologist World. (2021). Language acquisition. Retrieved from https://www.psychologistworld.com/cognitive/psycho-linguistics/language-acquisition.php

Quinton, S. (2013). Good teachers embrace their students’ cultural backgrounds. The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2013/11/good-teachers-embrace-their-students-cultural-backgrounds/281337/

Rafieyan, V., Orange, M., Bijami, M., Nejad, M. S., & Eng, L. S. (2013). Language learners’ acculturation attitudes. English Language Teaching, 7(1), 114–120. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1075685.pdf

Repetto, C. Natale, A. F. D. Villani, D. Triberti, S. Germagnoli, S. & Riva, G. (2021) The use of immersive 360° videos for foreign language learning: a study on usage and efficacy among high-school students. Interactive Learning Environments. doi:10.1080/10494820.2020.1863234

Resilient Educator. (2018). Five stages of second language acquisition. Retrieved from https://resilienteducator.com/classroom-resources/five-stages-of-second-language-acquisition/

Rosado, L. A. (2013). PRAXIS II English to speakers of other languages. New Jersey: Research & Education Association.

Rowe, M., & Zuckerman, B. (2016). Word gap redux: Developmental sequence and quality. JAMA Pediatrics, 170(9), 827–828. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.1360

Rubio, F. (2007). Self esteem and foreign language learning. Newcastle, NE: Cambridge Scholars.

Rutgers. (2017). How teachers can reduce stereotype threat in the classroom. Retrieved from https://cesp.rutgers.edu/blog/how-teachers-can-reduce-stereotype-threat-classroom

Sanchez, C. (2017). English language learners: How your state is doing. Nashville Public Radio. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2017/02/23/512451228/5-million-english-language-learners-a-vast-pool-of-talent-at-risk

Sapir, Edward. (1958). Culture, language and personality. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Shoebottom, P. (2017). Scaffolding: An overview. In A Guide to Learning English. Retrieved from http://esl.fis.edu/index.htm

SIL International. (2017). Why language and culture studies? Retrieved from https://www.sil.org/why-language-culture-studies

Stewart, P. J., & Stathern, A. J. (2017). Language and culture. In Breaking the frames, ebook (pp. 69–78). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312006692_Breaking_the_Frames

Stewner-Manzanares, G. (1988) The Bilingual Education Act: Twenty years later. The National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. Retrieved from https://ncela.ed.gov/files/rcd/BE021037/Fall88_6.pdf

Taylor, T. J. (2021). The audio-lingual teaching method. Retrieved from https://blog.tjtaylor.net/method-audio-lingual/

Téllez, K., & Manthey, G. (2015). Teachers’ perceptions of effective school-wide programs and strategies for English language learners. Learning Environments Research, 18(1), 111–127. Retrieved from https://people.ucsc.edu/~ktellez/tellez_manthyLERa.pdf

Torres, K. M., & Turner, J. E. (2015). Heritage language learners’ perceptions of acquiring and maintaining the Spanish language. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, pp. 1–12. doi:10.1080/13670050.2015.1113927

Uribe, J. A. (2013). Affective language acquisition stages: Pre-production. Children Learning English Affectively. Retrieved from http://childrenlearningenglishaffectively.blogspot.com/2013/03/affective-language-acquisition-stages.html

USC Rossier. (2019). What is an English language learner? Retrieved from https://rossieronline.usc.edu/blog/english-language-learners/

Useem, J., Useem, R. H., & Donaghue, J. D. (1963). Men in the middle of the third culture: The roles of American and non-Western people in cross-cultural administration. Human Organization, 22(3), 169–179. doi:10.17730/humo.22.3.5470n44338kk6733

U. S. Department of Education. (2017). English-language learner success stories. Office for Civil Rights. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/success-ell.html

U.S. Department of Education. (2020). Providing services to English learners during the COVID-19 outbreak. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/documents/coronavirus/covid-19-el-factsheet.pdf

Wade, K. (2016). 5 tips to engage parents using technology they already use. 3School News. Retrieved from http://www.eschoolnews.com/2016/05/17/5-tips-to-engage-parents-using-technology-they-already-use/

Walldén, R. (2021). “You Know, the World Is Pretty Unfair” – Meaning perspectives in teaching social studies to migrant language learners. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. doi:10.1080/00313831.2020.1869073

Weyer, M. (2017). Dual- and English-language learners. National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/education/english-dual-language-learners.aspx

Whorf, B. L. (1940). Science and linguistics. Technology Review, 35, 229–231, 247–248. Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/allanmc/www/whorf.scienceandlinguistics.pdf

Woodson, K. (2017). 10 ESL strategies that successfully motivated my students to reach the next level. Fluent U. English Educator. Retrieved from http://www.fluentu.com/english/educator/blog/effective-esl-teaching-strategies-motivation/

Wright, W. (2017). Landmark court rulings regarding English language learners. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/landmark-court-rulings-regarding-english-language-learners

Yakashko, O., Mack, T., & Iwamoto, D. (2015). Minority identity development model. In K. D. Keith (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cross-Cultural Psychology (pp. 627–629). London, UK: Wiley.

Yoon, B. (2021) English language learners’ language and literacy development: A brief synopsis of major theoretical orientations for middle school teachers. Middle School Journal, 52(1), 23–29. doi:10.1080/00940771.2020.1840270

Zazulak, S. (2015). 4 English teachers share their motivation secrets. Retrieved from https://www.english.com/blog/teachers-motivate-learners


Course content is updated every three years. Due to this update timeline, some URL links may no longer be active or may have changed. Please type the title of the organization into the command line of any Internet browser search window and you will be able to find whether the URL link is still active or any new link to the corresponding organization's web home page.


7/15/21 JN