English Language Learner: Linguistics
Dr. Karen Lea
8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday
Virtual Education Software
23403 E Mission Avenue, Suite 220F
Liberty Lake, WA 99019
English Language Learner: Linguistics was written to help teachers understand concepts and terms related to educating students whose first language is not English. This course discusses how to understand theoretical foundations of linguistics and how to apply the knowledge and skills in linguistics in ELL classrooms and content classrooms.
This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer. Technical support information can be found in the Help section of your course.
English Language Learner: Linguistics
Virtual Education Software, inc. 2020, Revised 2022
Dr. Karen Lea
The structure and format of most distance-learning courses presume a high level of personal and academic integrity in completion and submission of coursework. Individuals enrolled in a distance-learning course are expected to adhere to the following standards of academic conduct.
Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed, in part or in whole, to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.
The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.
Violation of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.
This course is designed as an informational course for K–12 teachers, administrators, parents, and related service personnel. Information discussed is designed to help you better understand linguistics.
As a result of taking this course, participants will be able to demonstrate their ability to:
<![if !supportLists]>1. <![endif]>Understand the origins, structure, and development of language and its application to other areas of humanistic and scientific knowledge.
<![if !supportLists]>2. <![endif]>Understand the general characteristics of the structure of language, including its phonological sound system, word structure, and phrase and sentence patterns.
<![if !supportLists]>3. <![endif]>Identify the terminology used to describe and analyze the structure and systems of language.
<![if !supportLists]>4. <![endif]>Identify basic principles of linguistic theory.
<![if !supportLists]>5. <![endif]>Consider linguistic diversity a wealth, not a problem.
Information provided in this course has been divided into four chapters, which should be completed in the order in which they are presented in the program. Once you have completed these four chapters, you should have a better understanding of linguistics. This course will give you the knowledge and skills to create morphological trees and use the International Phonetic Alphabet. This course will include discussions on phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. You are strongly encouraged to read additional journal articles, books, and research materials outside the course material to gain a better understanding of current issues related to educating students who are learning English as a second language.
This chapter focuses on the science and principles of linguistics, including sociolinguistics, pragmatics, structural linguistics, systemic-functional linguistics, discourse analysis, text linguistics, deep grammar, and current trends.
Chapter 2 focuses on the knowledge and skills of phonology, phonetics, phonemes, the International Phonetic Alphabet, and best practices in the classroom.
This chapter focuses on morphology, semantics, pragmatics, and instructional methods for teaching these in the ELL classroom and the content classroom.
This chapter focuses on syntax, pragmatics, and instructional methods for teaching these in the ELL classroom and the content classroom.
As a student you will be expected to:
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Complete all four information sections showing a competent understanding of the material presented in each section.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Complete all four section examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented. You must obtain an overall score of 70% or higher, with no individual exam score below 50%, and successfully complete ALL writing assignments to pass this course. *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Complete a review of any section on which your examination score was below 50%.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 50%, making sure to also be achieving an overall exam score of a minimum 70% (maximum of three attempts). *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Complete all course journal article and essay writing assignments with the minimum word count shown for each writing assignment.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.
At the end of each course section, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score. After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access. The average from your exam scores will be printed on your certificate. However, this is not your final grade since your required writing assignments have not been reviewed. Exceptionally written or poorly written required writing assignments, or violation of the academic integrity policy in the course syllabus, will affect your grade. As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.
All assignments are reviewed and may impact your final grade. Exceptionally or poorly written assignments, or violation of the Academic Integrity Policy (see course syllabus for policy), will affect your grade. Fifty percent of your grade is determined by your writing assignments, and your overall exam score determines the other fifty percent. Refer to the Essay Grading Guidelines, which were sent as an attachment with your original course link. You should also refer to the Course Syllabus Addendum, which was sent as an attachment with your original course link, to determine if you have any writing assignments in addition to the Critical Thinking Questions (CTQ) and Journal Article Summations (JAS). If you do, the Essay Grading Guidelines will also apply.
Your writing assignments must meet the minimum word count and are not to include the question or your final citations as part of your word count. In other words, the question and citations are not to be used as a means to meet the minimum word count.
There are four CTQs that you are required to complete. You will need to write a minimum of 500 words (maximum 1,000) per essay. You should explain how the information that you gained from the course will be applied and clearly convey a strong understanding of the course content as it relates to each CTQ. To view the questions, click on REQUIRED ESSAY and choose the CTQ that you are ready to complete; this will bring up a screen where you may enter your essay. Prior to course submission, you may go back at any point to edit your essay, but you must be certain to click SAVE once you are done with your edits.
You must click SAVE before you write another essay or move on to another part of the course.
You are required to write, in your own words, a summary on a total of three peer-reviewed or scholarly journal articles (one article per JAS), written by an author with a Ph.D., Ed.D. or similar, on the topic outlined within each JAS section in the “Required Essays” portion of the course (blogs, abstracts, news articles, or similar are not acceptable). Your article choice must relate specifically to the discussion topic listed in each individual JAS. You will choose a total of three relevant articles (one article per JAS) and write a thorough summary of the information presented in each article (you must write a minimum of 200 words with a 400 word maximum per JAS). Be sure to provide the URL or the journal name, volume, date, and any other critical information to allow the facilitator to access and review each article.
To write your summary, click on REQUIRED ESSAYS and choose the JAS that you would like to complete. A writing program will automatically launch where you can write your summary. When you are ready to stop, click SAVE. Prior to course submission you may go back at any point to edit your summaries but you must be certain to click SAVE once you are done with your edits. For more information on the features of this assignment, please consult the HELP menu.
You must click SAVE before you write another summary or move on to another part of the course.
Karen Lea holds a Ph.D. in education. Dr. Lea has 15 years of experience teaching at the K–12 level and another 14 years’ experience teaching education courses at the undergraduate and post-graduate levels. Those 14 years in higher education included 6 years as a dean at a university and 7 additional years in charge of assessment and accreditation at a university. Currently, she is a lead program development owner at Western Governor’s University. Dr. Lea has been professionally published more than 15 times and has served on over a dozen panels and boards, including serving on the NCATE (CAEP) Board of Examiners.
You may contact the instructor by emailing firstname.lastname@example.org or by calling 509-891-7219 Monday through Friday. Calls made during office hours will be answered within 24 hours. Phone conferences will be limited to ten minutes per student, per day, given that this is a self-paced instructional program. Please do not contact the instructor about technical problems, course glitches, or other issues that involve the operation of the course.
If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.
If you need personal assistance then email email@example.com or call 509-891-7219. When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call.
Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.
Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted, and how to submit your completed information. The addendum will also note any additional course assignments that you may be required to complete that are not listed in this syllabus.
Akmajian, A., Farmer, A. K., Bickmore, L., Demers, R. A., & Harnish, R. M. (2017). Linguistics: An introduction to language and communication. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
All About Linguistics. (2018a). Phonology. http://all-about-linguistics.group.shef.ac.uk/branches-of-linguistics/phonology/
All About Linguistics. (2018b). Semantics. http://all-about-linguistics.group.shef.ac.uk/branches-of-linguistics/semantics/
Alshahrani, H. (2021). Teaching pre-service educators about Response to Intervention (RTI) for children who are English Language Learners (ELL) and have learning disabilities (Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA).
Anderson, C. (2018). Essentials of linguistics. Pressbooks. https://essentialsoflinguistics.pressbooks.com/front-matter/introduction/
Anderson, S. R. (2019). Morphology. In L. Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of cognitive science. https://cowgill.ling.yale.edu/sra/morphology_ecs.htm
Antunez, B. (2018). English language learners and the five essential components of reading instruction. Reading Rockets. http://www.readingrockets.org/article/english-language-learners-and-five-essential-components-reading-instruction
Arntsen, T. (2018). How to teach prepositions of place (8 simple steps). Busy Teacher. https://busyteacher.org/3630-how-to-teach-prepositions-of-place.html
Balthazar, C. H., & Scott, C. M. (2018). Targeting complex sentences in older school children with specific language impairment: Results from an early-phase treatment study. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 61(3), 713–728. https://doi.org/10.1044/2017_JSLHR-L-17-0105
Baron, J. & Celaya, M. L. (2022). May I do something for you? The effects of audio-visual material (captioned and non-captioned) on EFL pragmatic learning. Language Teaching Research, 26(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/13621688211067000
Beare, K. (2018). Intonation and stress in English: How intonation and stress will improve your pronunciation. ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/intonation-and-stress-in-english-1212070
Beare, K. (2019). How to teach pronouns. ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/how-to-teach-pronouns-1212115
Beare, K. (2019). A short guide to punctuation. ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/guide-to-punctuation-1210356
Bishop, M. (2019). Defying description: 10 fun ways to teach adjectives. Busy Teacher. https://busyteacher.org/18397-how-to-teach-adjectives-10-fun-ways.html
Blackwood, M. (2020). Top 10 elearning trends for languages training in 2020. https://elearningindustry.com/10-elearning-trends-language-training-2020
Burton, S., Déchaine, R.-M., & Vatikiotis-Bateson, E. (2012). Linguistics for dummies. John Wiley.
Calvo, X. P. (2017). Dealing with linguistic diversity in the classroom: A challenge for teachers. Making Literacy Meaningful. http://euliteracy.eu/dealing-with-linguistic-diversity-in-the-classroom-a-challenge-for-teachers/
Chou, E. (2019). 5 quick and fun verb games to liven up your ESL classroom. https://www.fluentu.com/blog/educator-english/esl-verb-tenses-games-for-the-classroom/
Cirrus Teacher Certification Exam Prep Team. (Eds.). (2019). Praxis English to speakers of other languages. The PRAXIS Series. Trivium Test Prep.
CISL Admin. (n.d.). 5 common English grammar mistakes. Converse International School of Languages. https://cisl.edu/5-common-english-grammar-mistakes/
Cleary, M. N. (2014). The wrong way to teach grammar. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2014/02/the-wrong-way-to-teach-grammar/284014/
Collier, C. (2010). Asking the right questions: RTI and ELLs. http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/asking-right-questions-rti-and-ells
Conrad, S. Hartig, A.J., & Santelmann, L. (Eds.). (2021). The Cambridge introduction to applied linguistics. Cambridge University Press.
Crossman, A. (2019). Sociolinguistics. https://www.thoughtco.com/sociolinguistics-3026278
Crystal, D. (2008). Dictionary of linguistics and phonetics (6th ed.). Blackwell.
Davies, E. C. (2014). A retrospective view of systemic functional linguistics, with notes from a parallel perspective. Functional Linguistics, 1(4). https://doi.org/10.1186/2196-419X-1-4
Donnchaidh, S. M. (2019). 9 ESL vocabulary activities to build up your students’ word stores. FluentU. https://www.fluentu.com/blog/educator-english/esl-vocabulary-activities/
Drew, D. (2021). The 4 types of phonics, explained! https://helpfulprofessor.com/types-of-phonics/
Dyslexia. (2019). Morphological awareness: The power of morphology. http://dyslexiahelp.umich.edu/professionals/dyslexia-school/morphological-awareness
Ebbers, S. (Pub.). (2010). A morphological approach for English language learners. Vocabulogic: Bridging the Verbal Divide. https://vocablog-plc.blogspot.com/2010/08/morphological-approach-for-english.html
Eble, C. (2018). What is sociolinguistics? Sociolinguistics basics. http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/sociolinguistics/sociolinguistics/
EbtBlue. (2017). Ideas for teaching parts of speed to English language learners. A World of Language Learners. https://aworldoflanguagelearners.wordpress.com/2017/12/16/ideas-for-teaching-parts-of-speech-to-english-language-learners/
ELLO. (2019). Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson’s politeness theory. http://www.ello.uos.de/field.php/Pragmatics/PragmaticsPolitenessTheory
Emmiesahlan. (2019). Dynamic directions: Exciting ways to teach ESL students prepositions. https://www.fluentu.com/blog/educator-english/teaching-prepositions-esl/
EnglishClub. (2018). Tips for teaching prepositions. https://www.englishclub.com/efl/tefl-articles/tips-for-teaching-prepositions/
ESOL. (2018). Verb story. ESOL online. http://esolonline.tki.org.nz/ESOL-Online/Planning-for-my-students-needs/Resources-for-planning/ESOL-teaching-strategies/Writing/Verb-story
Estrella, O. (2018). Fun activities to teach pronouns: First grade style. https://www.brighthubeducation.com/lesson-plans-grades-1-2/103184-first-grade-activities-that-teach-pronouns/
Everyday ESL. (2018). Basic English grammar for the ESL teacher: Noun edition. https://everydayesl.com/blog/basic-english-grammar-nouns
Fareen, J. A. M. (2021). English language use and usage in formal and social contexts: A critical review. UGC Care Journal, 43(3). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/348477939_ENGLISH_LANGUAGE_USE_AND_USAGE_IN_FORMAL_AND_SOCIAL_CONTEXTS_-A_CRITICAL_REVIEW
Farrell, L. (2010). The difference between diphthongs and diagraphs. The Center for Development & Learning. http://www.readsters.com/wp-content/uploads/DigraphDiphthongDifference.pdf
Florida Department of Education. (2018). Literacy for learning in the content areas. https://www.fldoe.org/academics/standards/ss-arts-lit-gift.stml
Fulcher-Rood, K., Castilla-Earls, A. P., & Higginbotham, J. (2018). School-Based speech-language pathologists' perspectives on diagnostic decision making. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1044/2018_AJSLP-16-0121
Gallagher, K. L. (2016). 3 best practices for teaching English language learners. https://www.gettingsmart.com/2016/03/3-best-practices-for-teaching-english-language-learners/
Geikhman, V. (2018). Intonation for English learners: When to change it and how to learn it https://www.fluentu.com/blog/english/english-intonation/
Gick, B., Wilson, I., & Derrick, D. (2013). Articulatory phonetics. Wiley-Blackwell.
Gottlieb, M. (2021, December 9). Multilingual mysteries: Should we expand or diminish the role of assessment for multilingual learners? Center for Applied Linguistics. https://www.cal.org/news-and-events/blog/role-of-assessment-for-multilinguals
Gorman, B. K. & Kester, E. S. (2013). Phonological patterns of the English language learner. https://bilinguistics.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/abad_1001.pdf
Grammar Monster. (2019). What are prepositions? https://www.grammar-monster.com/lessons/prepositions.htm
Gussenhoven, C., & Jacobs, H. (2017). Understanding phonology (4th ed.). Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Hamawand, Z. (2011). Morphology in English: Word formation in cognitive grammar. Continuum International.
Hébert, L. (n.d.). The functions of language. Signo: Theoretical semiotics on the web. http://www.signosemio.com/jakobson/functions-of-language.asp
Hilliard, A. (2017). Twelve activities for teaching the pragmatics of complaining to L2 learners. https://americanenglish.state.gov/files/ae/resource_files/etf_55_1_p02-13.pdf.
Himmel, J. (2013). Language objectives: The key to effective content area instruction for English learners. http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/language-objectives-key-effective-content-area-instruction-english-learners
Horn, L. R., & Ward, G. (2006). The handbook of pragmatics. Blackwell.
Ideas.Ted.Com. (2014). 20 words that once meant something very different. https://ideas.ted.com/20-words-that-once-meant-something-very-different/
Ielanguages. (2019). What is semantics? https://ielanguages.com/semantics.html
Ingold, R. (2017). Language, Winnie-the-Pooh, and how linguistics can help you. Nativas. https://learningandteaching-navitas.com/language-winnie-pooh-linguistics-can-help/
International Phonetic Association. (2018). https://www.linkedin.com/company/international-phonetic-association/
IPA Chart. (n.d.). The International Phonetic Alphabet and the IPA chart. http://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/content/ipa-chart
Irujo, S. (2018). What does research tell us about teaching reading to English language learners? http://www.readingrockets.org/article/what-does-research-tell-us-about-teaching-reading-english-language-learners
ISFLA. (2018). What is systemic-functional linguistics? http://www.isfla.org/Systemics/definition.html
Jones, C. (1989). A history of English phonology. Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.
K12Reader. (2018). Best practices in phonics instruction. https://www.k12reader.com/best-practices-in-phonics-instruction/
Kahn, D. (2015). Syllable-based generalizations in English phonology. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Kinsley, J. (2018). Saussaure’s basic principles of structural linguistics. Omniglot. https://www.omniglot.com/language/articles/structurallinguistics.htm
Hiser, N., & Kopecky, A. (2009). American speech sounds. American Speech Sounds.
Kosur, H. M. (2019). Teaching semantic meaning to English students. Brighthub. https://www.brighthubeducation.com/esl-lesson-plans/65974-teaching-semantic-meaning/
Ladusaw, W. (2018). Meaning (semantics and pragmatics). Linguistic Society of America. https://www.linguisticsociety.org/resource/meaning-semantics-and-pragmatics
Lenchuk, I., & Ahmen, A. (2013). Teaching pragmatic competence: A journey from teaching cultural facts to teaching cultural awareness. TESL Canada Journal, 30(7), 82–97. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v30i7.1153
Levy, S. (2019). How to teach punctuation skills. https://busyteacher.org/14463-how-to-teach-punctuation-skills-best-practices.html
Levy, S. (2018). Excuse me (or please move): Teaching pragmatics in the classroom. https://busyteacher.org/9191-how-to-teach-pragmatics-esl-conversation-classroom.html
Lingnet. (2019). Morphology – Word construction and compositionality. http://www.linguisticsnetwork.com/morphology-word-construction-and-compositionality/
Linguistic Society of America. (2016). Guidelines for inclusive language. Linguistic Society of America. www.linguisticsociety.org
Linguistics for Teachers of ELLs. (2018). What is pragmatics? https://linguisticsforteachersofells.weebly.com/pragmatics-in-the-classroom.html
Lubin, M. (2019). A simple guide to teaching young ESL students about syntax. https://www.fluentu.com/blog/educator-english/esl-syntax/
Mado, J. D. (2019). Communication first! Six best practices for the second language classroom. JDMLS. http://www.demado-seminars.com/archive/communication_first_the_six_best_practices_for_the_second_language_classroom.htm
Maimberg, B. (2012). Structural linguistics and human communication: An introduction into the mechanism of language and the methodology of linguistics. Springer-Verlag.
Mannell, R. (2011). Phonetics and phonology: Distinctive features. Macquarie University Department of Linguistics. http://clas.mq.edu.au/speech/phonetics/phonology/features/
Middlebury. (2015). Derivation, morphological trees. Morphology and syntax. http://sites.middlebury.edu/spring2015morphologysyntax/slides/
National Association for the Education of Young Children. (1995). Responding to linguistic and cultural diversity recommendations for early childhood education. Author.
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2003). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read – A summary report. https://www.cdl.org/articles/report-national-reading-panel-teaching-children-to-read/#over
Nativlang. (2018). Sounds in language: Basic phonology. http://www.nativlang.com/linguistics/ipa-phonology-lessons.php
Nelson, W. (2018). Accent reduction for professionals: How to eliminate your accent to sound more American. CreateSpace.
Newmeyer, F. J. (2017). The history of modern linguistics. Linguistic Society of America. https://www.linguisticsociety.org/resource/history-modern-linguistics
Nordquist, R. (2017). Systemic functional linguistics (SFL). https://www.thoughtco.com/systemic-functional-linguistics-1692022
Nordquist, R. (2018a). Derivational morpheme in grammar. https://www.thoughtco.com/derivational-morpheme-words-1690381
Nordquist, R. (2018b). Inflectional morphology. https://www.thoughtco.com/inflectional-morphology-words-1691065
Nordquist, R. (2018c). Definition and examples of syntax. https://www.thoughtco.com/syntax-grammar-1692182
Nordquist, R. (2018d). What is the definition of word? https://www.thoughtco.com/word-english-language-1692612
Nordquist, R. (2018e). What is metonymy? https://www.thoughtco.com/metonymy-figures-of-speech-1691388
Ouelette, G., & Sénéchal, M. (2017). Invented spelling in kindergarten as a predictor of reading and spelling in grade 1: A new Pathway to literacy, or just the same road, less known? Developmental Psychology, 53(1) 77–88. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev
Palumbo. A. (2015). Teaching vocabulary and morphology in intermediate grades. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 59(2), 109–115. https://doi.org/10.1080/1045988X.2013.850649
Pennington, M. C. (2013). Phonology in English language teaching: An international approach. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Pentzlin, K. (2011). Second revised proposal to encode characters for the English Phonotypic Alphabet (EPA) in the UCS. Working Group Document. http://unicode.org/L2/L2011/11153-epa.pdf
Perles, K. (2018). Useful lesson plan on adverbs. https://www.brighthubeducation.com/lesson-plans-grades-3-5/50125-teaching-adverbs/
Pesce, C. (2018). 10 biggest ESL grammar mistakes and how to keep your students from making them. https://busyteacher.org/18253-10-biggest-esl-grammar-mistakes-students-make.html
Phonology. (2018). In Encylopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/science/phonology
Potts, C. (2014). Pragmatics. In R. Mitkov (Ed.), Oxford handbook of computational linguistics (2nd ed.). https://web.stanford.edu/~cgpotts/papers/potts-pragmatics-oupcompling.pdf
Prath, S. (2016, April 12). Know these 4 areas of typical second language “errors.” ASHA Leader Magazine. https://blog.asha.org/2016/04/12/4-quick-ways-to-identify-typical-language-patterns-of-bilingual-children/
Prepositions. (2018). In Grammar book. https://www.grammarbook.com/grammar/probPrep.asp
Pronunciation Studio. (2018). Diphthongs: A pronunciation guide. https://pronunciationstudio.com/pronunciation-guide-diphthong-vowel-sounds/
Rachel’s English. (2018). Why we need the IPA. https://rachelsenglish.com/ipa-heteronymns-homophones/
Reading Rockets. (2018). Tips for teaching your child about phonemes. http://www.readingrockets.org/article/tips-teaching-your-child-about-phonemes
Readwritethink. (2019). Common content area roots and affixes. http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/printouts/common-content-area-roots-30842.html
Rehbin, T. (2018). How to teach grammar effectively in schools and across disciplines. https://www.sadlier.com/school/ela-blog/how-to-teach-grammar-effectively-in-schools-and-across-disciplines-free-printables
Reutzel, D. R. (2015). Early literacy research: Findings primary-grade teachers will want to know. Reading Teacher, 69(1), 14–24. https://doi.org/10.1002/trtr.1387
Rippel, M. (2018). How to teach prefixes. All About Learning Press. https://blog.allaboutlearningpress.com/prefixes/
Robertson, K. (2014). Five things teachers can do to improve learning for ELLs in the new year. http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/five-things-teachers-can-do-improve-learning-ells-new-year
Robertson, K. (2018). Supporting ELLS in the mainstream classroom: Language tips. http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/supporting-ells-mainstream-classroom-language-tips
Robertson, K. (2014). Reading 101 for English language learners. http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/reading-101-english-language-learners
Rosado, L. A. (2013). Praxis II English to speakers of other languages. Arlington, Texas, Research & Education Association.
Sandoval, J. B., & Denham, K. E. (2021). Thinking like a linguist: An introduction to the science of language. Cambridge University Press.
Schulze, J. (2015). Academic language, English language learners, and systemic functional linguistics: Connecting theory and practice in teacher education. CATESOL Journal, 27(1), 109–132. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4bb8/8802260db016472a684973cf55e1e4778acf.pdf
Schwartz, J. (2021). 10 strategies that support English language learners across all subjects. https://www.edutopia.org/article/10-strategies-support-english-language-learners-across-all-subjects
Science Daily. (2021). Foreign language learners should be exposed to slang in the classroom and here’s why.... https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/02/210217121727.htm
Sedita, J. (2018). Using morphology to teach vocabulary. Literacy Lines. https://keystoliteracy.com/blog/using-morphology-to-teach-vocabulary/
Siegel, J. (2016). Pragmatic activities for the speaking classroom. https://americanenglish.state.gov/files/ae/resource_files/etf_54_1_pg12-19.pdf
Small, L. H. (2020). Fundamentals of phonetics: A practical guide for students (5th ed.). Pearson.
Stevens, K. N. (2000). Acoustic phonetics. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Szczegielniak, A. (2017). Introduction to linguistic theory. Harvard Scholars. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=11&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwjas_eNx4TgAhVHaq0KHR3SDUsQFjAKegQIAxAC&url=https%3A%2F%2Fscholar.harvard.edu%2Ffiles%2Fadam%2Ffiles%2Flanguage_acquisition.ppt.pdf&usg=AOvVaw1xaNisQPmfLyjQ2QU0CFrR
Tannen, D. (2018). Discourse analysis – What speakers do in conversation. Linguistic Society of America. https://www.linguisticsociety.org/resource/discourse-analysis-what-speakers-do-conversation
TedPower. (2018). Pronunciation. http://www.tedpower.co.uk/index.html
TESOL. (2017). Why K–12 teachers need to know about ESL grammar issues. Advancing Excellence in English Language Teaching. https://www.tesol.org/read-and-publish/journals/other-serial-publications/compleat-links/compleat-links-volume-6-issue-3-4-(october-2009)/why-k-12-teachers-need-to-know-about-esl-grammar-issues
Thomas, A. (2012). Building vocabulary through morphemes: Using word parts to unlock meaning. Center for Development & Learning. http://searkinstructionalfacilitation.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/104146639/Phonics-BuildingVocabularyThroughMorphemes.pdf
Tuma, F., & Sherman, T. (2022). Recruiting help in word searches in L2 peer interaction: A multimodeal conversation-analytic study. Linguistics and Education, 67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2021.100999
University of Sheffield. (2017). All about linguistics. http://all-about-linguistics.group.shef.ac.uk/about-this-website/
Vajda, E. J. (2018). Syntax. https://works.bepress.com/edward_vajda/82/
Van Dijk, T. A. (2015). Some aspects of text grammars: A study in theoretical linguistics and poetics. Zuid-Nederlandsche Drukkerij N.V., Printers.
Varsity Tutors. (2019). Grammar and parts of speech: Useful resources. Web English Teacher. https://www.varsitytutors.com/englishteacher/grammar
Vasquez, V. (2022). Scaffolding techniques for English language learners: Part 1. https://www.collaborativeclassroom.org/blog/scaffolding-techniques-english-language-learners-part-1/
Verner, S. (2019). Everything your ESL students need to know about nouns. https://busyteacher.org/20878-everything-your-esl-students-need-to-know-about.html
VIPKID. (2018). 9 ways to teach adjectives to ESL students. https://busyteacher.org/17877-teach-adjectives-9-creative-writing-idea.html
Warner, J. (2018). Why they can’t write: Killing the five-paragraph essay and other necessities. Johns Hopkins University Press.
Watson, S. (2017). Dipthongs: The sliding vowels. ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/sounds-in-spelling-the-dipthongs-3111059
Wolfram, W. (2017). Sociolinguistics. Linguistic Society of America. https://www.linguisticsociety.org/resource/sociolinguistics
Yule, G. (2020). The study of language. Cambridge University Press.
Zacarian, D. (2011). Using RTI effectively with English language learners. http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/rti-and-english-language-learners
Course content is updated every three years. Due to this update timeline, some URL links may no longer be active or may have changed. Please type the title of the organization into the command line of any Internet browser search window and you will be able to find whether the URL link is still active or any new link to the corresponding organization’s web home page.