Reading Fundamentals #1:
An Introduction to Scientifically-based Research
Instructor Name: Dr. Karen Lea
Facilitator: Mick R. Jackson MS/ED
Office Hours: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday
Address: Virtual Education Software
16201 E Indiana Ave, Suite 1450
Spokane, WA 99216
Reading Fundamentals supports the concept of using scientifically-based reading research to develop an effective approach to reading assessment, instruction, evaluation, and remediation.
An Introduction to Scientifically-based Research, the first in the three-course Reading Fundamentals series on effective reading instruction, was designed to give background on scientifically-based instruction as it applies to federal legislation. The course discusses the research that supports scientifically-based research as it applies to effective instruction, assessment, and evaluation. The course explores myths and misconceptions concerning reading instruction and remediation. It also presents an evaluation checklist designed to assess the effectiveness of your current reading program. The goal of the course is to present you with research, trustworthy evidence, and background information that support the need for a reading program that is based on scientific research and proven methods.
Course Materials (Online)
Title: Reading Fundamentals #1: An Introduction to Scientifically-based Research
Authors: Ronald Martella, Ph.D.
Publisher: Virtual Education Software, inc. 2004, Revised 2010, Revised 2014, Revised 2017, Revised 2020
Instructor: Dr. Karen Lea
Facilitator: Mick R. Jackson MS/ED
Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed in part or in whole to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.
Aiding Honesty in Others
The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge these materials or information will be used improperly.
Violations of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.
This course is designed to be an informational course with application to educational settings. The curriculum suggestions and teaching strategies explained here were designed to be used for the teaching and remediation of students in kindergarten through twelfth grade. Some alterations may be needed if working with specific populations such as gifted, ESL, or special education.
1. Describe what is meant by critical thinking.
2. Explain what science is and illustrate the six scientific principles.
3. Explain the myths and misconceptions of science, and describe the ways in which we gain information.
4. Describe the impact science has had on medicine, clinical psychology, and education.
5. Illustrate the constraint levels in educational research.
6. Explain the difference in assumptions regarding the sources of variability, the type of logic approach, and the ability
to generalize results between experimental group research and single-case research.
7. Describe the concepts of reliability and validity and trustworthiness or believability of measures.
8. Explain what is meant by variability, including the sources of variability.
9. Describe the terms internal and external validity, and explain the threats to each.
10. Illustrate the different research designs/methods (i.e., experimental, single-case, causal-comparative, correlational, and qualitative).
11. Describe the importance of replications and illustrate the types of replications.
12. Describe what is meant by the term research synthesis.
The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) outlines a clear approach for improving literacy success by supporting states in the development of effective literacy instruction and a continuum of support and interventions for those students who are at risk for reading failure. Thus, educators must have a working knowledge of evidence-based instructional strategies and approaches. (Note: A summary of this legislation regarding the use of evidence-based instructional materials appears in Course 2.)
According to Evans, Waring, and Christodoulou (2017), teachers should use research to guide their practice. Unfortunately, according to Evans et al., teachers’ research knowledge is lacking. Teachers are not adequately trained in research methodology in their pre-service programs. An interesting phenomenon is present in teacher preparation programs. Undergraduate students are rarely required to take research methods or statistics courses. Contrast this with the situation of undergraduates in psychology. Psychology undergraduates are typically required to take research and statistics courses. The interesting aspect of this difference is that students in teacher preparation programs are highly likely to be accountable for the academic progress of students in their classrooms once they become teachers. In comparison, psychology students will likely be much less accountable for the progress of individuals in their charge (e.g., direct care services such as group homes and residential facilities). In other words, if we compare the responsibilities of education college students with those of psychology college students, the students who would be most in need of training in the scientific process (e.g., data-based decision-making) would be those preparing to be teachers.
As a student you will be expected to:
· Complete all six information sections showing a competent understanding of the material presented in each section.
· Complete all six section examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented. You must obtain an overall score of 70% or higher, with no individual exam score below 50%, to pass this course. *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
· Complete a review of any section on which your examination score was below 50%.
· Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 50%, making sure to also be achieving an overall exam score of a minimum 70% (maximum of three attempts). *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
· Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.
Chapter 2: Constraint Levels, Validity & Variability in Research
chapter will discuss the various types of research and the constraint levels in
educational research. The difference in assumptions made regarding sources of
variability, the type of logic approach, and the ability to generalize results
between experimental group research and single-case research will be explained.
There will be information on the issues of reliability and validity and
trustworthiness or believability in research
Chapter 4: Experimental Designs
This chapter will discuss quasi-experimental designs, pre-experimental designs, true experimental designs, and single case designs. It will discuss causal-comparatives and correlational research as well as qualitative research. The chapter will also discuss objectives and methodology.
Chapter 5: Putting It All Together
At the end of each chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score. After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access. Your final grade for the course will be determined by calculating an average score of all exams. This score will be printed on your final certificate. As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.
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Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted and how to submit your completed information. The addendum will also note any additional course assignments that you may be required to complete that are not listed in this syllabus.
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