Reading Fundamentals #1:
An Introduction to Scientifically-based Research
Instructor Name: Dr. Karen Lea
Facilitator: Mick R. Jackson MS/ED
Office Hours: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday
Address: Virtual Education Software
16201 E Indiana Ave, Suite 1450
Spokane, WA 99216
Reading Fundamentals supports the concept of using scientifically-based reading research to develop an effective approach to reading assessment, instruction, evaluation, and remediation.
An Introduction to Scientifically-based Research, the first in the three-course Reading Fundamentals series on effective reading instruction, was designed to give background on scientifically-based instruction as it applies to the federal legislation of 2001, 2004, and 2015. The course discusses the research that supports scientifically-based research as it applies to effective instruction, assessment, and evaluation. The course explores myths and misconceptions concerning reading instruction and remediation. It also presents an evaluation checklist designed to assess the effectiveness of your current reading program. The goal of the course is to present you with research, trustworthy evidence, and background information that support the need for a reading program that is based on scientific research and proven methods.
Course Materials (Online)
Title: Reading Fundamentals #1: An Introduction to Scientifically-based Research
Authors: Ronald Martella, Ph.D.
Publisher: Virtual Education Software, inc. 2004, Revised 2010, Revised 2014, Revised 2017
Instructor: Dr. Karen Lea
Facilitator: Mick R. Jackson MS/ED
Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed in part or in whole to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.
Aiding Honesty in Others
The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge these materials or information will be used improperly.
Violations of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.
Expected Learning Outcomes
1. Describe what is meant by critical thinking.
2. Explain what science is and illustrate the six scientific principles.
3. Explain the myths and misconceptions of science, and describe the ways in which we gain information.
4. Describe the impact science has had on medicine, clinical psychology, and education.
5. Illustrate the constraint levels in educational research.
6. Explain the difference in assumptions regarding the sources of variability, the type of logic approach, and the ability
to generalize results between experimental group research and single-case research.
7. Describe the concepts of reliability and validity and trustworthiness or believability of measures.
8. Explain what is meant by variability, including the sources of variability.
9. Describe the terms internal and external validity, and explain the threats to each.
10. Illustrate the different research designs/methods (i.e., experimental, single-case, causal-comparative, correlational, and qualitative).
11. Describe the importance of replications and illustrate the types of replications.
12. Describe what is meant by the term research synthesis.
The No Child Left Behind Act requires that teachers be qualified to teach reading. They must have a working knowledge of scientifically validated instructional programs and practices. According to Kilpatrick (2003), the most critical part of the Act was that there must be an increase in teachers’ knowledge of the scientific process under which instructional programs are evaluated. (Note: A summary of this legislation regarding the use of scientifically validated, evidence-based instructional materials appears in Course 2.)
As a student you will be expected to:
· Complete all five information sections showing a competent understanding of the material presented in each section.
· Complete all five section examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented. You must obtain an overall score of 70% or higher, with no individual exam score below 50%, and successfully complete ALL writing assignments to pass this course. *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
· Complete a review of any section on which your examination score was below 50%.
· Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 50%, making sure to also be achieving an overall exam score of a minimum 70% (maximum of three attempts). *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
· Complete all course journal article and essay writing assignments with the minimum word count shown for each writing assignment.
· Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.
Chapter 2: Constraint Levels, Validity & Variability in Research
chapter will discuss the various types of research and the constraint levels in
educational research. The difference in assumptions made regarding sources of
variability, the type of logic approach, and the ability to generalize results
between experimental group research and single-case research will be explained.
There will be information on the issues of reliability and validity and
trustworthiness or believability in research
Chapter 4: Experimental Designs
This chapter will discuss quasi-experimental designs, pre-experimental designs, true experimental designs, and single case designs. It will discuss causal-comparatives and correlational research as well as qualitative research. The chapter will also discuss objectives and methodology.
Chapter 5: Putting It All Together
At the end of each chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score. After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access. Your final grade for the course will be determined by calculating an average score of all exams. This score will be printed on your final certificate. As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.
If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.
If you need personal assistance then email firstname.lastname@example.org or call (509) 891-7219. When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call.
Minimum Computer Requirements
Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.
Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted and how to submit your completed information. The addendum will also note any additional course assignments that you may be required to complete that are not listed in this syllabus.
Archer, A. L., & Hughes, C. A. (2011). Explicit instruction: Effective and efficient teaching. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2006). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read (3rd ed.). Jessup, MD: Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement.
Atkinson, P., & Hammersley, M. (1994). Ethnography and participant observation. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 248-261). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Barlow, D. H., Nock, M. K., & Hersen, M. (2009). Single case experimental designs: Strategies for studying behavior change (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Bell, K., & Dolainski, S. (2012). What is evidence-based reading instruction and how do you know it when you see it? Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://lincs.ed.gov/publications/pdf/EDVAE09C0042EBRILAUSD.pdf
Biancarosa, C., & Snow, C. E. (2006). Reading next: A vision for action and research in middle and high school literacy. A report to Carnegie Corporation of New York (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.
Boardman, A. G., Roberts, G., Vaughn, S., Wexler, J., Murray, C. S., & Kosanovich, M. (2008). Effective instruction for adolescent struggling readers: A practice brief. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.
Bogdan, R. C., & Biklen, S. K. (2006) Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Bornstein, R. F. (1990). Publication politics, experimenter bias and the replication process in social science research. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5(4), 71-81.
Chambless, D. L., & Ollendick, T. H. (2001). Empirically supported psychological interventions: Controversies and evidence. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 685-716. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.685
Cook, B. G., & Cook, S. C. (2013). Unraveling evidence-based practices in special education. Journal of Special Education, 47, 71-82. doi:10.1177/0022466911420
Corbin, J., & Strauss. (2007). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounding theories (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Coyne, M. D., Kame’enui, E. J., & Carnine, D. W. (2011). Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Every Student Succeeds Act. S.1177, 114th Cong. (2015. Retrieved from: http://edworkforce.house.gov/uploadedfiles/every_student_succeeds_act__conference_report.pdf
Fetterman, D. M. (1989). Applied social research methods series: Vol. 17. Ethnography step by step. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Fleishman, S., Kohlmoos, J. W., & Rotherham, A. J. (2003, March). From research to practice. Education Week. Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=26fleischman.h22
Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P., & Borg, W. R. (2010). Applying educational research (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P., & Borg, W. R. (2015). Applying educational research (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Gast, D. L., & Ledford, J. R. (2014). Single case research methodology: Applications in special education and behavioral sciences. New York, NY: Routledge.
Gilgun, J. F. (1994). A case for case studies in social work research. Social Work, 39, 371-380.
Gould, S. J. (1981). The mismeasure of man. New York, NY: Norton.
Graham, S., & Hebert, M. A. (2010). Writing to read: Evidence for how writing can improve reading. A Carnegie Corporation Time to Act Report. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.
Graziano, A. M., & Raulin, M. L. (2012). Research methods: A process of inquiry (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Hendrick, C. (1990). Replications, strict replications, and conceptual replications: Are they important? Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5(4), 41-49.
Howe, K., & Eisenhart, M. (1990). Standards for qualitative (and quantitative) research: A prolegomenon. Educational Researcher, 19(5), 2-9.
International Reading Association. (2002). What is evidence-based reading instruction? A position statement of the International Reading Association. Retrieved from http://www.reading.org/Libraries/position-statements-and-resolutions/ps1055_evidence_based.pdf
Kazdin, A. E. (1977). Artifact, bias, and complexity of assessment: The ABCs of reliability. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 141-150. doi:10.1901/jaba.1977.10-141
Kazdin, A. E. (2010). Single-case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Kamil, M. L., Borman, G. D., Dole, J., Kral, C. C., Salinger, T., & Torgesen, J. (2008). Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A Practice Guide (NCEE #2008-4027). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/ wwc.
Lamal, P. A. (1990). On the importance of replication. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5(4), 31-35.
Lane, J. D., & Gast, D. L. (2014). Visual analysis in single case experimental design studies: Brief review and guidelines. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 24, 445-463.
Ledford, J. R., & Gast, D. L. (2014). Measuring procedural fidelity in behavioural research. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 24, 332-348.
Martella, R. C., Nelson, J. R., Morgan, R. L., & Marchand-Martella, N. E. (2013). Understanding and interpreting educational research. New York, NY: Guilford.
McCardle, P., Chhabra, V., & Kapinus, B. (2008). Reading research in action: A teacher’s guide for student success. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Meier, K. (1997, February 7). The value of replicating social-science research. The Chronicle of Higher Education, p. B7.
Moats, L. (2007). Whole-language high jinks: How to tell when “scientifically-based reading instruction” isn’t.
Thomas B. Fordham Institute. Retrieved from http://edexcellencemedia.net/publications/2007/200701_wholelanguagehijinks/Moats2007.pdf
National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy. (2005). Accessing and using research for evidence-based practice. Retrieved from http://www.ncsall.net/fileadmin/resources/Accessing_R-based_practice.pdf
National Governors Association for Best Practices. (2005). Reading to achieve: A governor’s guide to adolescent literacy. Retrieved from: http://www.nga.org/Files/pdf/0510GOVGUIDELITERACY.PDF
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups (NIH Publication No. 00-4754). Retrieved from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/nrp/pages/smallbook.aspx
National Institute for Literacy (NIFL). (2007). What content-area teachers should know about adolescent literacy. Retrieved from http://lincs.ed.gov/publications/pdf/adolescent_literacy07.pdf
Neuliep, J. W., & Crandall, R. (1993a). Everyone was wrong: There are lots of replications out there. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 8(6), 1-8.
Neuliep, J. W., & Crandall, R. (1993b). Reviewer bias against replication research. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 8(6), 21-29.
Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Popper, K. R. (1957/1996). Philosophy of science: A personal report. In S. Sarkar (Ed.), Science and philosophy in the twentieth century: Decline and obsolescence of logical empiricism (pp. 237-273). New York: Garland. (Reprinted from British philosophy in the mid-century: A Cambridge symposium, pp. 155-191, by C. A. Mace, Ed., 1957, New York, NY: Macmillan Norwood Russe).
Potter, W. J. (1996). An analysis of thinking and research about qualitative methods. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Park, R. (2000). Voodoo science: The road from foolishness to fraud. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Rosenthal, R. (1990). Replication in behavioral research. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5(4), 1-30. doi:10.1016/S0927-5371(97)00012-2
Rosnow, R. L., & Rosenthal, R. (1976). The volunteer subject revisited. Australian Journal of Psychology, 28, 97-108. doi:10.1080/00049537608255268
Sagan, C. (1996). The demon-haunted world: Science as a candle in the dark. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.
Scammacca, N., Roberts, G., Vaughn, S., Edmonds, M., Wexler, J., Reutebuch, C. K., & Torgesen, J. K. (2007). Interventions for adolescent struggling readers: A meta-analysis with implications for practice. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.
Shaver, J. P. (1983). The verification of independent variables in teaching methods research. Educational Research, 12, 3-9.
Silverman, D. (2015). Interpreting qualitative data (5th ed.). London, Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Slavin, R. E. (2003, February). A reader’s guide to scientifically based research: Learning how to assess the validity of education research is vital for creating effective, sustained reform. Educational Leadership, 12-16.
Slavin, R. E. (2015). Educational psychology: Theory and practice (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
U.S. Department of Education. (2003). Identifying and implementing educational practices supported by rigorous evidence: A user friendly guide. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences/National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
U.S. Department of Education. (2013). Common guidelines for education research and development. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences/National Science Foundation.
Whitehurst, G. (2002). Evidence-based education (EBE). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ed.gov/nclb/methods/whatworks/eb/evidencebased.pdf
Wills, H., Kamps, D., Abbott, M., Bannister, H., & Kaufman, J. (2010). Classroom observations and effects of reading interventions for students at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 35(2), 103-119.
Wing Institute. (2013). Evidence-based education. Retrieved from http://winginstitute.org
Course content is updated every three years. Due to this update timeline, some URL links may no longer be active or may have changed. Please type the title of the organization into the command line of any Internet browser search window and you will be able to find whether the URL link is still active or any new link to the corresponding organization's web home page.