Reading Fundamentals #3:
The Elements of Effective Reading Instruction & Assessment
Instructor Name: Mick R. Jackson
Office Hours: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday
Address: Virtual Education Software
16201 E Indiana Ave, Suite 1450
Spokane, WA 99216
This course will focus on learning to read, reading to learn, and an introduction to reading assessment. As part of these two key areas of reading instruction, the five elements of effective reading instruction will be highlighted, including definitions, implications for instruction, and future directions. These five elements include instruction in: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension. Further, we discuss information on teacher preparation in learning about comprehension strategy instruction and reading instruction, as well as how to integrate computer technology into the classroom. Additionally, the course will provide information on important assessment terms and definitions and will explore how reading assessment fits within federal mandated programs. This analysis includes specific recommendations on 29 reading assessments. Finally, the course describes how teachers can conduct pivotal curriculum-based measurement procedures in their classrooms.
This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer. Technical support information can be found, in the Help section of your course.
Reading Fundamentals #3: The Elements of Effective Reading Instruction & Assessment
Authors: Greg Benner, Ph.D., Nancy Marchand-Martella, Ph.D., and Ronald Martella, Ph.D.
Publisher: Virtual Education Software, inc. 2004, Revised 2010
Instructor: Mick Jackson MS/ED
Academic Integrity Statement
The structure and format of most distance-learning courses presumes a high level of personal and academic integrity in completion and submission of coursework. Individuals enrolled in a distance-learning course are expected to adhere to the following standards of academic conduct.
Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed in part or in whole to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.
Aiding Honesty in Others
The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.
Violations of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.
Level of Application
This course is designed to be an informational course with application to reading programs for kindergarten through third grade. The course is designed for both regular and exceptional education teachers and support staff who teach reading and reading remediation to public and private school students. This is a three-course series and teacher should complete the entire three-course series before developing and implementing a phonetically-based reading program in their school or classroom.
1. Describe learning to read and reading to learn.
2. Discuss important aspects of phonemic awareness instruction.
3. Identify important aspects of phonics instruction.
4. Describe important aspects of fluency instruction.
5. Note important aspects of vocabulary instruction.
6. Discuss important aspects of text comprehension.
7. Describe various aspects of teacher preparation and education in comprehension strategy instruction and reading instruction.
8. Note how computer technology can be used in reading instruction.
9. Provide details on the Consumer’s Guide to Evaluating a Core Reading Program by Simmons and Kame’enui (2003) and the Planning and Evaluation Tool for Effective Schoolwide Reading Programs by Kame’enui and Simmons (2000).
10. Describe accomplishments that can be expected for students in grades K-3.
11. Describe reading remediation guidelines and interventions for students in grades K-12.
12. Describe how to incorporate tutoring as an effective reading intervention.
13. Define important assessment terms.
14. Discuss technical adequacy, test interpretation, and assessment purposes.
15. Note how assessment fits within federally mandated programs.
16. Describe the findings of the Reading Assessment Committee (2002).
17. Discuss important ways to link assessment with instruction.
18. Detail the use of data-based decision making in classroom settings, with particular focus on various types of curriculum-based measurement procedures.
The Reading Fundamental program focuses on implementing proven methods of early reading instruction in classrooms. Through the federal reading initiative, states and districts will receive support to apply scientifically based reading research—and the proven instructional and assessment tools consistent with this research—to ensure that all children learn to read well by the end of third grade. The Reading Fundamentals program will provide the necessary assistance to states and districts to establish research-based reading programs for students in kindergarten through third grade. Funds will also support a significant increase in professional development to ensure that all teachers have the skills they need to teach these reading programs effectively. Additionally, the program provides assistance to states and districts in preparing classroom teachers to screen, identify, and eliminate reading barriers facing their students (U.S. Department of Education, 2002, p. 1).
Reading Fundamentals not only specifies that an effective reading program should include phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension instruction, but also notes that “an effective reading program is one that coherently integrates: screening, diagnostic and classroom-based assessments that are valid and reliable” (U.S. Department of Education, 2002a, p. 2). Accountability is the cornerstone of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act (U.S. Department of Education, 2002b) that includes federal reading legislation. Throughout the NCLB legislation, reference is made to helping students meet high academic standards and to measuring what they know and can do. If we are to ensure that all children can read by grade 3, as the legislation suggests, we must provide some way of measuring children’s performance. This assessment holds us accountable for what instruction and programs we provide in the classroom.
This course will describe the elements of effective reading instruction in some detail. Two primary sources were used in developing this course. First, the National Reading Panel Report (2000) was used. This Report serves as the most current “evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction” (note title of the National Reading Panel Report). Second, the Put Reading First document (Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001a), a well-respected and easy-to-read publication on the research building blocks for teaching children to read, was used. “The findings and conclusions in this publication were drawn from the 2000 report of the National Reading Panel” (Armbruster et al., p. i).
Educational assessment involves gathering, interpreting, and synthesizing information to help teachers make important decisions about student performance (Airasian, 2001). It involves everything from scores on projects, papers, and exams to how children perform on school, district, state, or national evaluations (such as standardized tests). Educational assessment can be teacher-designed or publisher/researcher-based. It can be centered on the curriculum in the school or district, or based on what children across the country should know in a particular academic subject area, such as reading.
As a student you will be expected to...
· Complete all 6 information chapters covering The Elements of Effective Reading Instruction & Assessment, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.
· Complete all 6 chapter examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.
· Complete a review of any chapter on which your examination score was below 70%.
· Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 70% (maximum of 3 attempts).
· Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.
Chapter 1: Introduction to Reading Instruction
The purpose of this course is to consider what we can do in school to promote effective reading instruction. In this chapter we focus on three elements of effective reading instruction. These are phonemic awareness, phonics and fluency building. We have labeled these elements under the heading Learning to Read. Learning to Read emphasizes decoding skills.
Chapter 2: Reading to Learn & Other Important Areas of Reading Instruction
In this chapter, we focus on reading to learn or comprehension of text materials. Two elements of effective reading instruction must be conducted to improve reading comprehension in the classroom. These include vocabulary instruction and text comprehension instruction.
Chapter 3: Further Examination of Reading Programs & Skills
In this chapter, we provide further examination of reading programs and skills. We discuss how to evaluate core or comprehensive reading programs using the Consumer’s Guide developed by Simmons and Kame’enui (2003). We also discuss the Planning and Evaluation Tool (Kame’enui & Simmons, 2000) that is used to assess schoolwide reading programs. We conclude by discussing the important accomplishments by grade level as identified by Armbruster, Lehr, and Osborn (2003) in their booklet, A Child Becomes a Reader: Proven Ideas from Research for Parents: Kindergarten through Grade 3.
Chapter 4: Reading Remediation
In this chapter, we will describe interventions for students in Grades K-12. We offer important guidelines on remedial reading programs. We will also focus on the importance of tutorial programs in schools. Tutorial programs are considered one of the best ways of providing reading instruction to struggling readers.
Chapter 5: Reading Assessment
This chapter describes relevant assessment terms and purposes. It is critical to understand the types of tests available to teachers and what information can be gathered from them. It also provides important information on how assessment fits within Reading First. Additionally, this chapter details the findings of the Reading First Assessment Committee. It also provides important information on how assessment fits within Reading First. Additionally, this chapter details the findings of the Reading First Assessment Committee.
Chapter 6: Recommended Classroom Practices
This chapter lays out recommended classroom practices in terms of assessment. It describes the ever-important link between assessment and instruction. An outcomes-driven model is discussed. Additionally, the chapter explores data tracking and data-based decision making with particular focus on CBM and its derivatives (i.e., measures not based directly on a particular curriculum, but integrating CBM elements such as frequent progress monitoring). It discusses the DIBELS and MASI-R as well as teacher-developed CBM practices that can serve as criterion-referenced tests when student data are compared to performance criteria.
At the end of each chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score. After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access. Your final grade for the course will be determined by calculating an average score of all exams. This score will be printed on your final certificate. As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.
Reading Fundamentals #3: The Elements of Effective Reading Instruction & Assessment has been developed by a team of professionals with educational backgrounds in the areas of clinical psychology, direct reading, and phonetic instructional practices. Mick Jackson, the instructor of record, is a Behavioral Intervention Specialist with a Master's Degree in Special Education and Behavioral Theory and a minor in Reading Remediation. He has 15 years’ combined experience in self-contained special education classrooms, resource rooms, and a hospital day treatment setting. He has conducted oral seminars, presenting to school districts, teacher groups, and at educational conferences.
Contacting the Instructor
You may contact the instructor by emailing Mick at firstname.lastname@example.org or calling him at 800-313-6744 Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. PST. Phone messages will be answered within 24 hours. Phone conferences will be limited to ten minutes per student, per day, given that this is a self-paced instructional program. Please do not contact the instructor about technical problems, course glitches, or other issues that involve the operation of the course.
If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.
If you need personal assistance then email email@example.com or call (509) 891-7219. When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call.
Minimum Computer Requirements
Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.
Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted, and how to submit your completed information.
Bibliography (Suggested Readings)
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Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2006b). A child becomes a reader: Proven ideas from research for parents: Kindergarten to grade 3 (3rd ed.). Jessup, MD: National Institute for Literacy.
Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2006c). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read: Kindergarten through grade 3 (3rd ed.). Jessup, MD: National Institute for Literacy.
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Update 9/7/11 JN