Typical & Atypical Development
Dr. Marrea Winnega
Darcie Donegan, MA/Ed.
8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday
Virtual Education Software
23403 E Mission Avenue, Suite 220F
Liberty Lake, WA 99019
Welcome to Early Childhood: Typical & Atypical Development, an interactive distance-learning course that covers development during the first eight years of life and research-based best practices in early learning. Included will be information about typical development from the prenatal stage to middle childhood with an emphasis on individual differences, cultural influences, and the impact of developmental delay and disability. Discussion will also include instructional technology (IT) and assistive technology (AT) applications for this population.
This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer. Technical support information can be found in the Help section of your course.
Course Materials (Online)
Early Childhood: Typical & Atypical Development
Virtual Education Software, inc. 2008, Revised 2012, Revised 2018, Revised 2021
Dr. Marrea Winnega
Darcie Donegan, MA/Ed.
The structure and format of most distance-learning courses presume a high level of personal and academic integrity in completion and submission of coursework. Individuals enrolled in a distance-learning course are expected to adhere to the following standards of academic conduct.
Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed, in part or in whole, to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.
The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.
Violations of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.
This course is designed as one part of a five-part series on early childhood education. Upon completion of all five courses, you will have covered all of the CDA Competencies to prepare you to take the CDA exam (applicable in certain states). This course specifically covers CDA Competencies 1–9, 12, and 13 (Check your individual state requirements), which all relate to the establishment of well-run, purposeful programs for young children that are responsive to individual needs and advance the development of the whole child. This course is designed for anyone planning programs for young children—child-care providers, early childhood educators, and health care or social services providers, to name a few.
At the conclusion of this course, students should be able to:
The first chapter presents an introduction to the study of child development from conception to age 8. We will examine the historical roots and methods of child study, major psychological theories, and developmental principles and definitions. This information will provide grounding for the following chapters on specific ages and developmental areas.
In the second chapter we will start to study child development chronologically. We begin with conception and prenatal development and care, and then continue through labor and birth. Next, we consider the special characteristics and needs of the newly delivered baby, including common developmental variations. This overview will include both typical and atypical development.
The third chapter focuses on infants and toddlers; the first three years of life (ages 1–36 months). We will look at growth and development in the domains of motor-perceptual, cognitive, language, brain, and social-emotional development. This chapter details milestones, red flags, developmental variation, and how adults can safely and appropriately facilitate the development of infants and toddlers.
Finally, Chapter Four discusses early and early middle childhood, or the magic years, ages 3–8 years old (Fraiberg, 1959). The preschool and early elementary school periods are times of great discovery, testing, and wonder. Students will learn about typical and varied 3–8-year-old development in all areas—moral, social, self-esteem, early learning, motor skills, communication abilities, social and brain development, and more. Indicators, or red flags, that suggest developmental delay or deviation are detailed in all chapters, and resources for further research are provided.
Each chapter contains additional handouts or attachments that cover specific topics from the chapter in greater depth. They are provided for you to read, ponder, and apply to the early childhood education setting in which you work. Some of the topics are intended for you, as the professional, while others are intended for you to pass on to parents, when appropriate. Each chapter also contains web links that you can choose to access if you want to see videos or research in action related to chapter concepts.
As a student you will be expected to:
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Complete all four information sections showing a competent understanding of the material presented in each section.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Complete all four section examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented. You must obtain an overall score of 70% or higher, with no individual exam score below 50%, and successfully complete ALL writing assignments to pass this course. *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Complete a review of any section on which your examination score was below 50%.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 50%, making sure to also be achieving an overall exam score of a minimum 70% (maximum of three attempts). *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Complete all course journal article and essay writing assignments with the minimum word count shown for each writing assignment.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.
<![if !supportLists]>1) <![endif]>Define child development and basic developmental principles
<![if !supportLists]>2) <![endif]>Understand historical and emerging viewpoints on child study
<![if !supportLists]>3) <![endif]>Recognize major theories and recent trends
<![if !supportLists]>4) <![endif]>Identify research methods, designs and ethics
<![if !supportLists]>5) <![endif]>Appreciate the importance of child development to early childhood educators
<![if !supportLists]>1) <![endif]>Outline family contexts of family planning and preparation
<![if !supportLists]>2) <![endif]>Describe the process of conception
<![if !supportLists]>3) <![endif]>Explain the stages of prenatal development
<![if !supportLists]>4) <![endif]>Understand the role of genes and chromosomes in development
<![if !supportLists]>5) <![endif]>Define proper prenatal care and risks to the developing infant
<![if !supportLists]>6) <![endif]>Identify labor and birth options and processes
<![if !supportLists]>7) <![endif]>Discuss atypical conception, prenatal development, labor and birth
<![if !supportLists]>8) <![endif]>Define newborn assessment and care
<![if !supportLists]>9) <![endif]>Understand typical and atypical newborn appearance and abilities
<![if !supportLists]>1) <![endif]>Discuss growth patterns and motor development milestones
<![if !supportLists]>2) <![endif]>Describe the development of language and cognitive skills
<![if !supportLists]>3) <![endif]>Define basic brain development principles and terms
<![if !supportLists]>4) <![endif]>Understand normal socio-emotional development of infants and toddlers
<![if !supportLists]>5) <![endif]>Describe cognitive and language development
<![if !supportLists]>6) <![endif]>Recognize common variations and atypical infant and toddler development
<![if !supportLists]>1) <![endif]>Understand the typical sequence of growth and motor development, including health issues
<![if !supportLists]>2) <![endif]>Describe preschool and young school-age cognitive development and related theories
<![if !supportLists]>3) <![endif]>Identify language development milestones including emergent literacy approaches
<![if !supportLists]>4) <![endif]>Discuss typical 3-to-8-year-old social-emotional development and milestones
<![if !supportLists]>5) <![endif]>Define developmentally appropriate educational practices for young children
<![if !supportLists]>6) <![endif]>Learn types of atypical development and developmental variations
At the end of each chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score. After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access. Your final grade for the course will be determined by calculating an average score of all exams. This score will be printed on your final certificate. As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.
All assignments are reviewed and may impact your final grade. Exceptionally or poorly written assignments, or violation of the Academic Integrity Policy (see course syllabus for policy), will affect your grade. Fifty percent of your grade is determined by your writing assignments, and your overall exam score determines the other fifty percent. Refer to the Essay Grading Guidelines which were sent as an attachment with your original course link. You should also refer to the Course Syllabus Addendum which was sent as an attachment with your original course link, to determine if you have any writing assignments in addition to the Critical Thinking Questions (CTQ) and Journal Article Summations (JAS). If you do, the Essay Grading Guidelines will also apply.
Your writing assignments must meet the minimum word count and are not to include the question or your final citations as part of your word count. In other words, the question and citations are not to be used as a means to meet the minimum word count.
There are four CTQs that you are required to complete. You will need to write a minimum of 500 words (maximum 1,000) per essay. You should explain how the information that you gained from the course will be applied and clearly convey a strong understanding of the course content as it relates to each CTQ. To view the questions, click on REQUIRED ESSAY and choose the CTQ that you are ready to complete; this will bring up a screen where you may enter your essay. Prior to course submission, you may go back at any point to edit your essay, but you must be certain to click SAVE once you are done with your edits.
You must click SAVE before you write another essay or move on to another part of the course.
You are required to write, in your own words, a summary on a total of three peer-reviewed or scholarly journal articles (one article per JAS), written by an author with a Ph.D., Ed.D. or similar, on the topic outlined within each JAS section in the “Required Essays” portion of the course (blogs, abstracts, news articles or similar are not acceptable). Your article choice must relate specifically to the discussion topic listed in each individual JAS. You will choose a total of three relevant articles (one article per JAS) and write a thorough summary of the information presented in each article (you must write a minimum of 200 words with a 400 word maximum per JAS). Be sure to provide the URL or the journal name, volume, date, and any other critical information to allow the facilitator to access and review each article.
To write your summary, click on REQUIRED ESSAYS and choose the JAS that you would like to complete. A writing program will automatically launch where you can write your summary. When you are ready to stop, click SAVE. Prior to course submission you may go back at any point to edit your summaries but you must be certain to click SAVE once you are done with your edits. For more information on the features of this assignment, please consult the HELP menu.
You must click SAVE before you write another summary or move on to another part of the course.
Early Childhood: Typical & Atypical Child Development has been developed by Darcie Donegan, MA/Ed., the instructor of record. Darcie received her BA from the University of Washington and her master’s degree from Pacific Oaks College in Human Development, specializing in Early Childhood Education and Adult Education. She has worked with young children and their caregivers for more than 35 years in various capacities, including as a preschool teacher, center director, parent educator, trainer, and consultant. Darcie has also been an international consultant through the Soros Foundation and has taught in many different countries. She is currently adjunct faculty in ECE at Whatcom Community College, a Washington State Department of Early Learning approved trainer, and the author of the 10 Parenting Preschoolers modules for Washington State’s Organization of Parent Education Programs (OPEP). Areas of special interest include infants and toddlers, child development, observation and assessment, social-emotional development, brain development, childcare, and parenting. Darcie is the mother of three college students (including twins and a son with special needs) and has been married to a (nice) lawyer for many, many years. In addition to writing this course, Darcie is the author of another course in this Early Childhood series called Early Childhood: Observation & Assessment. Please contact Professor Donegan if you have course content or examination questions.
Dr. Marrea Winnega is a licensed clinical psychologist with 20 years of experience in the field of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Currently, she is an assistant professor of clinical psychology in the University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Psychiatry. She consults for schools and agencies serving individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders, including Asperger’s Disorder. She has also conducted numerous workshops, in-services, and trainings throughout the United States. Please contact Professor Donegan if you have course content or examination questions.
You may contact the facilitator by emailing Professor Donegan at firstname.lastname@example.org or calling her at 509-891-7219, Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. PST. Phone messages will be answered within 24 hours. Phone conferences will be limited to 10 minutes per student, per day, given that this is a self-paced instructional program. Please do not contact the instructor about technical problems, course glitches or other issues that involve the operation of the course.
If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.
If you need personal assistance, then email email@example.com or call 509-891-7219. When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call.
Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.
Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted and how to submit your completed information. The addendum will also note any additional course assignments that you may be required to complete that are not listed in this syllabus.
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