Traumatized Child:

The Effects of Stress, Trauma & Violence on Student Learning

 

Instructor Name:          Dr. Pamela Bernards, Ed.D.

Facilitator Name:          Joan S. Halverstadt

Phone:                         509-891-7219

Office Hours:               8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday

Email:                          joanh@virtualeduc.com

Address:                      Virtual Education Software

                                    16201 E Indiana Ave, Suite 1450

                                    Spokane, WA 99216

Technical Support:       support@virtualeduc.com

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Introduction

Welcome to Traumatized Child: The Effects of Stress, Trauma & Violence on Student Learning, an interactive, computer-based instruction course designed to help you identify and effectively teach students affected by stress, trauma, and/or violence.  This course teaches you to recognize the signs of stress, trauma, or violence in students.  It also discusses the specific factors that tend to be present in families and communities where stress and violence are common, as well as the long-term effects on children.  A major emphasis of this course is on helping the participant understand the special learning needs of the student who is experiencing stress, trauma, or violence in his/her life and how to meet his/her needs in the regular classroom.  Working with parents and community agencies is also emphasized.

 

This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer.  Technical support information can be found in the Help section of your course.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Course Materials (Online)

Title:                Traumatized Child:  The Effects of Stress, Trauma & Violence on Student Learning

Instructor:        Dr. Pamela Bernards, Ed.D.

Facilitator:        Joan S. Halverstadt, M.Ed., School Counselor

Publisher:         Virtual Education Software, inc. 2004, Revised 2010, Revised 2013, Revised 2016, Revised 2019

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Academic Integrity Statement

The structure and format of most distance-learning courses presume a high level of personal and academic integrity in completion and submission of coursework. Individuals enrolled in a distance-learning course are expected to adhere to the following standards of academic conduct.

 

Academic Work

Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed, in part or in whole, to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.

 

Aiding Honesty in Others

 The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.

 

Violations of these academic standards will result in the assignment of a failing grade and subsequent loss of credit for the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Level of Application

This course is designed to be an informational course with application to educational settings. The intervention strategies are designed to be used for the remediation of students experiencing stress, trauma, or exposure to violence, ranging in age from approximately three to eighteen years. Some alterations may be needed if working with specific populations such as gifted, ESL or special education.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Expected Learning Outcomes

At the conclusion of this course students will:

1)    Understand the educator’s role in supporting and accommodating students who have special learning needs arising from exposure to stress, trauma, or violence in their lives

2)    Understand the educator’s role in protecting and supporting vulnerable students

3)    Recognize the symptoms of stress, trauma, and violence

4)    Understand how stress, trauma, or violence affects brain development and learning

5)    Understand the causes of stress, trauma, and violence in families and society

6)    Understand the special learning needs these students bring to the classroom

7)    Gain techniques for supporting students and families affected by stress, trauma, or violence

8)    Learn intervention techniques applicable to the classroom setting

9)    Gain a wider knowledge of available outside resources and support systems

10)   Understand the educator’s role in the intervention and prevention of violence

11)   Be able to research, list, and discuss state and/or district reporting mandates and the requirements and limitations on determining suspected child abuse.

       12)   Know how to explore violence prevention resources and curricula 

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Course Description

This course is designed to help classroom teachers, school counselors and other educational personnel gain strategies to reach and teach students who have been affected by stress, trauma and/or violence.  Participants will learn the signs and symptoms of stress and trauma.  Participants will explore how stress, violence and trauma affect a student’s learning, cognitive brain development and social-emotional development. The short- and long-term consequences of being exposed to stress, trauma or violence, as well as the social and family causes, will be reviewed. Participants will learn the dynamics of domestic violence and community violence.  The educator’s role in the intervention and prevention of violence will be discussed.   

 

The course is divided into four chapters.  Each chapter discusses a particular topic of stress, trauma or violence.  There will be numerous “checkpoint” questions inserted throughout the reading, which are designed to help students review the content and apply it to their own educational setting.  The chapters are sequential and should be completed in the order in which they are presented.  At the completion of each chapter, there will be an examination covering the material. Students must complete the examination before proceeding to the next chapter.  In some of the chapter examinations, questions will involve case studies to provide further practice in the application of knowledge. This sequential approach to learning will help all participants gain a better understanding of what they have learned as they proceed through the course.  This course is appropriate for educators seeking training in working with toddlers through adolescents, as well as those who work directly with families.

 

Although this course is not a comprehensive presentation of the educational issues surrounding stress, trauma and violence, it certainly includes a wealth of research covering many topics which are not covered in the scope of this course.  The instructor highly recommends that you augment your readings from this course with further research to gain a fuller understanding of the complexities of this subject.  However, the material presented in this course will give you a broader understanding of the topics of stress, violence and trauma.  It will also give you information to apply directly to your work with students in the classroom and community.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Student Expectations 

As a student you will be expected to:

·         Complete all four information sections showing a competent understanding of the material presented in each section.

·         Complete all four section examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented.  You must obtain an overall score of 70% or higher, with no individual exam score below 50%, to pass this course.  *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.

·         Complete a review of any section on which your examination score was below 50%.

·         Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 50%, making sure to also be achieving an overall exam score of a minimum 70% (maximum of three attempts). *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.

·         Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.

 

Chapter Topics

Chapter 1 - The Effects of Stress on Student Learning
This chapter will discuss the effects of stress on student learning.  The causes of stress and how children react to stress will be presented.  The long-term effects of adverse childhood experiences will be reviewed.  School stress and coping skills for dealing with stress will also be discussed.

 

Chapter 2 - The Effects of Trauma on Student Learning 

This chapter will discuss the effects of trauma on student learning.  The way in which childhood trauma affects the brain development of young children will be a special focus.  Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome in children will be discussed, as will strategies educators can use in the classroom to accommodate students who have special learning needs due to exposure to trauma.

 
Chapter 3 - The Effects of Family Violence on Student Learning

The focus of this chapter will be the dynamics of family violence, especially domestic violence, in terms of its causes and repercussions.  The ways in which children react to family violence and how exposure to family violence influences a child’s overall development are discussed. 

 

Chapter 4 – The School’s Response to Violence in the Community

This chapter discusses bullying and the physical and emotional violence that can occur in the school setting, as well as in the school, community, and media.  In addition, a discussion of strategies for how educators can include violence prevention curricula in their program and plans for dealing with school violence is included. 

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Examinations

At the end of each chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score.  After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access.  Your final grade for the course will be determined by calculating an average score of all exams.  This score will be printed on your final certificate.  As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Facilitator Description

Joan Halverstadt is a retired Special Services Director, School Psychologist, and School Counselor.  She has 15 years’ experience as a school counselor, working with at-risk preschool and elementary-aged students.  Ms. Halverstadt has over 45 years of experience working in early childhood education with children and families, including working with children affected by family issues, abuse, or trauma.  She also teaches graduate-level education counseling, early childhood, and special education courses for teachers and counselors.  She received her National Certification and School Psychology Educational Specialist degree from Seattle University, her School Counseling Educational Staff Associate Degree from City University, her Master’s in Education from George Mason University, and her BA in Psychology and Elementary Education from Whitman College.  Please contact Professor Halverstadt if you have course content or examination questions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Instructor Description

Pamela Bernards has 30 years of combined experience in diverse PK-8 and high school settings as a teacher and an administrator.  In addition to these responsibilities, she was the founding director of a K-8 after school care program and founder of a pre-school program for infants to 4-year-olds to address all early childhood issues.  When she was a principal, her school was named a U.S. Department of Education Blue Ribbon School of Excellence.  More recently, the school in which she serves as curriculum coordinator was named a 2010 Blue Ribbon School.  Areas of interest include curriculum, research-based teaching practices, staff development, assessment, data-driven instruction, and instructional intervention with exceptional populations.  She received a doctorate in Leadership and Professional Practice from Trevecca Nazarene University.

Please contact Professor Halverstadt if you have course content or examination questions.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Contacting the Facilitator

You may contact the facilitator by emailing Professor Halverstadt at joanh@virtualeduc.com or calling her at 509-891-7219, Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. PST. Phone messages will be answered within 24 hours. Phone conferences will be limited to ten minutes per student, per day, given that this is a self-paced instructional program. Please do not contact the instructor about technical problems, course glitches or other issues that involve the operation of the course.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Technical Questions

If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.

 

If you need personal assistance then email support@virtualeduc.com or call (509) 891-7219.  When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call. 

 

Minimum Computer Requirements

Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted and how to submit your completed information. The addendum will also note any additional course assignments that you may be required to complete that are not listed in this syllabus.

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Bibliography

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American Academy for Children and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2015, December). Facts for families. Violent behavior in children and adolescents #55. Retrieved from http://www.aacap.org/aacap/families_and_youth/facts_for_families/fff-guide/Understanding-Violent-Behavior-In-Children-and-Adolescents-055.aspx

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Cherry, K. (2018). The five levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Very Well Mind. Retrieved from www.verywellmind.com/what-is-maslows-hierarchy-of-needs-4136760?print

Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2015). Understanding the effects of maltreatment on brain development. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/issue-briefs/brain-development/

Child Welfare Information Gateway, Children’s Bureau, IFC International. (n.d.). Strengthening families and communities-2011. National Resource Center for Community Based Child Abuse Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/2011guide.pdf

Children’s Defense Fund (2017). State of America’s children. Retrieved from https://www.childrensdefense.org/2018/2017-state-of-americas-children-release/

Children’s Defense Fund (2017). Moments in America for children. Retrieved from https://www.childrensdefense.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/state-of-americas-children.pdf

Cohen, J., Mannarino, A., & Deblinger, D. (2017). Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.

Crisis Prevention Institute, Inc. (n.d.). Trauma-Informed care resources guide. Retrieved from https://www.crisisprevention.com/CPI/media/Media/download/PDF_TICRG.pdf (must provide info)

Crisis and Trauma Resources Institute Inc. (2018). Crisis response checklist. Retrieved from https://us.ctrinstitute.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Crisis-Response-Checklist2.pdf

Cummings, K., Addante, S., Swindell, J., & Meadan, H. (2017). Creative supportive environments for children who have had exposure to traumatic events. Child Family Studies, 26, 2728–2741.

Dye, H. (2018). The impact and long-term effects of childhood trauma. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 28(3), 381–392.

Fink, J. L. W. (2018). Talking with kids about school violence and trauma. Scholastic. https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/articles/teaching-content/when-terrible-things-happen-helping-students-recover-trauma/

Focus Adolescent Series. (2017). Teaching children not to be—or be victims of—bullies. Retrieved from http://www.med.umich.edu/yourchild/topics/assertive.htm

Gaskill, R. L., & Perry, B. D. (2012). Child sexual abuse, traumatic experiences and their effect on the developing brain. In P. Goodyear-Brown (Ed.), Handbook of child sexual abuse: Identification, assessment and treatment (pp. 22–49). New York, NY: Wiley.

Goldman, L. (2014). Raising our children to be resilient: A guide to helping children cope with trauma in today’s world (1st ed.). Oxford, England: Taylor & Francis.

Greenwald, R. (2015, September). Child trauma handbook (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Kostelnik, M. (2010). Helping children resolve conflict: Aggressive behavior of children. NebGuide–University of Nebraska. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=cyfsfacpub

Levine, P., & Klein, M. (2007). Trauma through a child’s eyes: Awakening the ordinary miracle of healing infancy through adolescence. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Massachusetts Advocates for Children: Trauma and Learning Policy Initiative. (2009). Helping traumatized children learn: Supportive school environments for children traumatized by domestic violence: A report and policy agenda. Retrieved from http://www.massadvocates.org/documents/HTCL_9-09.pdf

Media Education Foundation. (2016). Media Violence: Facts and Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.mediaed.org/handouts/ChildrenMedia.pdf

Metzler, M., Merrick, M. T., Klevens, J., Ports, K. A., & Ford, D. C. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences and life opportunities: Shifting the narrative. Children and Youth Services Review, 72, 141–149.

Moore, K. A., & Ramirez, A. N. (2016). Adverse childhood experiences and adolescent well-being: Do protective factors matter? Child Indicators Research, 9(2), 299–316.

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National Center for Education Statistics. (2018, March). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2017 report. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2018/2018036.pdf

National Centers for Excellence on Youth Violence Prevention. (2018). CDC. www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/ace/

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Division of Violence Prevention. (2017). Preventing bullying. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/bullying-factsheet508.pdf

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Perry, (2007). Stress, trauma, and post-traumatic stress disorders in children. The ChildTrauma Academy. Retrieved from https://childtrauma.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/PTSD_Caregivers.pdf

Perry, B. D. (2009, December). The neurodevelopmental impact of violence in childhood. In D. Schetky & E. Benedek (Eds.), Textbook of child and adolescent forensic psychiatry (pp. 221–238). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Perry, B. (2014). The cost of caring: Understanding and preventing secondary traumatic stress. The ChildTrauma Academy. Retrieved from https://childtrauma.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Cost_of_Caring_Secondary_Traumatic_Stress_Perry_s.pdf

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School Health Policies and Programs Study. (2016). Results from the school health policies and practices study. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/shpps/pdf/shpps-results_2016.pdf

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Additional Publishers and Social Skills Curriculum Programs

Bureau for At-Risk Youth

Variety of drug prevention, bullying and violence prevention, social skills, character ed., conflict resolution, etc. resources

The Guidance Group 1-800-99-YOUTH www.at-risk.com

Character Counts (K–8) (character education)

http://charactercounts.org

Committee for Children

Second Step (PreK–K, Grades 1–3, Grades 4–6, & Grades 7–8)
(conflict resolution, problem solving, feelings, & impulse control)

Talking About Touching (personal safety)
Toll Free: 1-800-634-4449

Community Intervention Inc.: Tools To Help Youth

Working It Out At Madison High (13 videos for HS violence prevention)

In Search of Character (6th–12th)

1-800-328-0417

communityintervention.org

Discovery Education (digital textbooks)

Get Real About Violence (K–1st, 2–4, & 6–8) (violence prevention) 1-800-323-9084

www.discoveryeducation.com

Educational Media Corp

Prevent Violence With Groark (5 violence prev. videos- 1st-3rd)

Ready To Use Social Skills & Activities (PK–K, 1–3,4–6,7–12)

The Power of Choice (12 videos for teens)

In Search of Character (10 videos for Jr. High & High School)

You Can Choose (10 videos for K–5)

Big Changes, Big Choices (12 videos for 5th–9th)

1-800-966-3382

James Stanfield Pub. Corp. (specialists in special ed)

Be Cool (K–12) 6 levels

1-800-421-6534

www.stanfield.com

Sopris West/Cambium Learning

Assist Program (Grades 1–3 & 4–6) (friendship skills, anger, etc.)

Stop and Think Social Skills Program (PK–8)

Tough Choices & Right Choices (5-12)

Bully Proofing series (PK–12)

RIDE (Responding to Individual Differences in Education (PK–8)

Phone: 1-303-651-2829/1-800-547-6747

Teaching Tolerance

a program of the Southern Poverty Law Center; provides grants of up to $2,000 to purchase violence prevention curriculum

www.tolerance.org

Young Peoples Press

Building Character

Toll Free: 1-800-231-9774

www.youngpeoplespress.com

Resources for Parenting Classes

How to Listen So Kids Will Talk & Talk So Kids Will Listen

By Adele Faber & Elaine Mazlish

Simon & Schuster Pub.

Love & Logic

Toll Free: 1-800-338-4065

www.loveandlogic.com

Active Parenting Publishers

Toll Free: 1-800-825-0060

www.activeparenting.com

Parenting Difficult Adolescents or Guidance Club for Parents of Teens

Bureau for At Risk Youth

Toll Free: 1-800-99-YOUTH

Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP)

AGS

Toll Free: 1-800-720-1286

www.steppublishers.com

Resources on Domestic Violence

Center for the Study of Prevention of Violence

https://cspv.colorado.edu

National Center on Domestic and Sexual Violence (includes section on stalking)

www.ncdsv.org

National Coalition Against Domestic Violence

“The Problem” and “Getting Help”

www.ncadv.org

National Domestic Violence Hotline 1-800-799-SAFE (7233)

www.thehotline.org

National Network to End Domestic Violence

http://nnedv.org

National Resource Center on Domestic Violence

www.nrcdv.org

 

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3/8/19 jn