Violence in Schools:
Identification, Prevention & Intervention Strategies
Instructor Name: Dr. Karen Lea
Office Hours: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST Monday - Friday
Address: Virtual Education Software
16201 E Indiana Ave, Suite 1450
Spokane, WA 99216
Welcome to Violence in Schools, an interactive computer-based instruction course, designed to give you a better understanding of school violence and increase your interventions strategies. Violence in Schools provides a foundational understanding of violence and the motivational purposes behind aggression. The correlation with and impact of the media, community and family upon violence will be investigated. The course teaches identification and intervention approaches for working with out-of-control behaviors. In addition, each student will receive information on available national resources for both parents and teachers. This course will help each person to increase his or her understanding of violence, the motivations behind the use of violence and specific strategies to minimize the occurrence of violence in a school and community.
This computer-based instruction course is a self-supporting program that provides instruction, structured practice, and evaluation all on your home or school computer. Technical support information can be found in the Help section of your course.
Course Materials (Online)
Title: Violence in Schools: Identification, Prevention & Intervention Strategies
Instructor: Dr. Karen Lea
Publisher: Virtual Education Software, inc. 2000, Revised 2004, Revised 2010, Revised 2013, Revised 2016, Revised 2019
Academic work submitted by the individual (such as papers, assignments, reports, tests) shall be the student’s own work or appropriately attributed, in part or in whole, to its correct source. Submission of commercially prepared (or group prepared) materials as if they are one’s own work is unacceptable.
Aiding Honesty in Others
The individual will encourage honesty in others by refraining from providing materials or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.
Level of Application
This course is designed to be an informational course with application to work and work-related settings. The intervention strategies presented in this course may be generalized to all students (pre-kindergarten through 12th grade) and adults. While an intervention may be geared toward a specific age population, with minimal modifications an educator should be able to adapt the strategy for his or her students.
As a result of this course, participants will demonstrate their ability to:
· Identify factors contributing to violent behaviors
· Develop strategies to address school/community violence
· Effectively intervene, provide safety and minimize violent actions
· Develop a “school violence” assessment with specific intervention strategies
· Assess the climate of the classroom and school, making the necessary adjustments to increase safety
· Address preventative methods within the school system for students
Anger management strategies have become an important topic in schools, businesses, homes and communities. Our society is inundated with classes, books and counseling programs that explain various ways to “manage anger.” Despite our best attempts, aggression and violence are still on the rise. We regularly hear and read from various media sources how dangerous our society has become, especially our youth population. This class will focus on developing new ways of handling violence without getting involved in the typical power struggles. During this course, each person will learn specific strategies and practical ideas to aid in the reduction of school violence. Key intervention ideas for developing a civil climate within each school will be presented, and identification and recognition of potential violence will be discussed. Included in this approach will be an emphasis on safety for students and educators. This course is not attempting to be a “cure all” or “fix it” approach, but will aid educators in their ability to develop a safer environment in a school and community. In addition, it will help each person feel more qualified and capable of handling emerging violent behaviors within a school, home or community setting.
As a student you will be expected to:
· Complete all four information sections showing a competent understanding of the material presented in each section.
· Complete all four section examinations, showing a competent understanding of the material presented. You must obtain an overall score of 70% or higher, with no individual exam score below 50%, to pass this course. *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
· Complete a review of any section on which your examination score was below 50%.
· Retake any examination, after completing an information review, to increase that examination score to a minimum of 50%, making sure to also be achieving an overall exam score of a minimum 70% (maximum of three attempts). *Please note: Minimum exam score requirements may vary by college or university; therefore, you should refer to your course addendum to determine what your minimum exam score requirements are.
· Complete a course evaluation form at the end of the course.
Chapter 1: Why We Have Violence in Schools
4. Risk Factors
5. Why Escalating Violence, Part I
6. Why Escalating Violence, Part II
10. Warning Signs
11. Self-Awareness Activity
12. Learned vs. Instinctive
13. Gang Assessment Tools
14. Anger/Aggression Activity
Chapter 2: Strategies/Prevention for Individuals
1. Behavior Response
2. How to Respond
3. Avoiding Power Struggles
5. Controlling Anxiety
6. Control & Direct Activity
Chapter 3: Strategies/Prevention for Schools
1. Action Steps for Students
2. Action Steps for Teachers
3. Action Steps for Parents
5. Patterns of Aggression
6. Preventing Behavior
7. Making Peace
8. Decision Making Activity
9. Confrontation Communication
10. Changing Behavior
11. Prevention Strategies
12. Conflict Negotiation
13. Crisis Planning Guidelines
14. Possible Interventions
15. Anger: It Won’t Work Here
Chapter 4: Have a Plan
1. Case Study
2. Violence Prevention Training/Tools
At the end of each chapter, you will be expected to complete an examination designed to assess your knowledge. You may take these exams a total of three times. Your last score will save, not the highest score. After your third attempt, each examination will lock and not allow further access. Your final grade for the course will be determined by calculating an average score of all exams. This score will be printed on your final certificate. As this is a self-paced computerized instruction program, you may review course information as often as necessary. You will not be able to exit any examinations until you have answered all questions. If you try to exit the exam before you complete all questions, your information will be lost. You are expected to complete the entire exam in one sitting.
Karen Lea holds a Ph.D. in education, has TEFL certification, and is Project Management Professional certified. Dr. Lea has fifteen years’ experience teaching at the K–12 level and another seventeen years’ experience teaching education and leadership courses at the undergraduate and post-graduate levels. Currently she is an Assessment Developer at Western Governor's University. Dr. Lea has been professionally published over fifteen times and has served on more than a dozen panels and boards, including serving on the NCATE (CAEP) Board of Examiners.
If you have questions or problems related to the operation of this course, please try everything twice. If the problem persists please check our support pages for FAQs and known issues at www.virtualeduc.com and also the Help section of your course.
If you need personal assistance then email firstname.lastname@example.org or call (509) 891-7219. When contacting technical support, please know your course version number (it is located at the bottom left side of the Welcome Screen) and your operating system, and be seated in front of the computer at the time of your call.
Minimum Computer Requirements
Please refer to VESi’s website: www.virtualeduc.com or contact VESi if you have further questions about the compatibility of your operating system.
Refer to the addendum regarding Grading Criteria, Course Completion Information, Items to be Submitted and how to submit your completed information. The addendum will also note any additional course assignments that you may be required to complete that are not listed in this syllabus.
American Hospital Association. (2018). Youth violence prevention. Retrieved from https://www.aha.org/street-and-gang-violence
American Psychological Association. (2015). Warning signs of youth violence. http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/warning-signs.aspx. Retrieved December 2016.
Barsotti, C. (2018, December 1). Ending gun violence is our lane. Emergency Medicine News, 41(1), pp. 3–4. Retrieved from https://journals.lww.com/em-news/blog/BreakingNews/Pages/post.aspx?PostID=430
Beresin, E. V. (2016). The impact of media violence on children and adolescents: Opportunities for clinical interventions. National Network Opposing the Militarization of Youth. Retrieved from http://nnomy.org/en/content_page/427-articles/586-the-impact-of-media-violence-on-children-and-adolescents-opportunities-for-clinical-interventions.html
Blout, J. D., Rose, K. C., Suessman, M., Coleman, K., & Selekman, J. (2012). School violence, role of the school nurse in prevention [Issue Brief]. National Association of School Nurses. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED539208.pdf
CDC. (2016). School violence: Prevention tools and resources. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/youthviolence/schoolviolence/tools.html
CDC. (2016). Understanding school violence. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/youthviolence/schoolviolence/
CDC. (2016). Youth violence: Risk and protective factors. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/youthviolence/riskprotectivefactors.html
CDC. (2016). Youth violence. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/youthviolence/schoolviolence/
CDC. (2019). School-Associated Violent Death Study. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/youthviolence/schoolviolence/SAVD.html
Children’s Safety Network. (2019). Youth violence prevention. Retrieved from https://www.childrenssafetynetwork.org/injury-topics/youth-violence-prevention
Constitutional Rights Foundation. (2016). Causes of school violence. http://www.crf-usa.org/school-violence/causes-of-school-violence.html
Crooks, C. V., Exner-Cortens, D., Siebold, W., Rosier, M., & Baker, J. (2018). Building capacity to implement teen dating violence prevention: Lessons learned from the Alaska fourth R initiative. In D. Wolfe & J. Temple, Adolescent dating violence: Theory, research, and prevention (pp. 503–521). London, UK: Elsevier.
Crooks, C. B., Jaffe, P., &
Dunlop, C. (2018). Preventing gender-based violence among adolescents and young
adults: Lessons from 25 years of program development and evaluation. Violence Against Women, 25(1) doi:10.1177
Curwin, R. (2016). Helping your students cope with a violent world. George Lucas Educational Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/helping-students-cope-violent-world-richard-curwin
Dean, E. B. (2019, January 10). Sexual assault in schools. Headteacher Update, 2019(1). Retrieved from https://www.magonlinelibrary.com/doi/full/10.12968/htup.2019.1.8
Espelage, D. (2010). Bullying in North American schools. Florence, KY: Routledge. Research-based book on violence in schools (grades K–12).
Flood, M. (2019) The problem: Men’s violence against women. In Engaging men and boys in violence prevention (pp. 11–38). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Fry, R., & Kochhar, R. (2014, December 17). America’s wealth gap between middle-income and upper-income families is widest on record. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/12/17/wealth-gap-upper-middle-income/
Greenberg, J. (2015, October 5). MSNBC’s Joe Scarborough: Tiny fraction of crimes committed with legal guns. Retrieved from http://www.politifact.com/punditfact/statements/2015/oct/05/joe-scarborough/msnbcs-joe-scarborough-tiny-fraction-crimes-commit/
Herr, N. (2016). Television and health. Internet Resources to Accompany The Sourcebook for Teaching Science. Retrieved from http://www.csun.edu/science/health/docs/tv&health.html
Huesmann, L. R., Moise-Titus, J., Podolski, C-L., & Eron, L. D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children’s exposure to tv violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 201–221. doi:10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.52
Knorr, C. (2013, February 13). Media and violence: An analysis of current research. Common Sense Media. Retrieved from https://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/media-and-violence-an-analysis-of-current-research
Lohmann, R. C. (2010). Teen gangstas. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/teen-angst/201010/teen-gangstas
Longobardi, C., Prino, L.E., Fabris, M. A., and Settanni, M. (2019). Violence in school: An investigation of physical, psychological, and sexual victimization reported by Italian adolescents. Journal of School Violence, 18(1), pp. 49–61. doi:10.1080/15388220.2017.1387128
Lösel, F., & Farrington, D. P. (2012). Direct protective and buffering protective factors in the development of youth violence. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43(2), S8–S23. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2012.04.029
Males, M. (2015). Age, poverty, homicide, and gun homicide. SAGE Open, 5(1). doi:10.1177/2158244015573359
McNeely, R. (2016). Avoiding power struggles with students. National Education Association. Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/tools/49922.htm
Muschert, G. W., Henry, S., Bracy, N. L., & Peguero, A. A. (2014). Responding to school violence: Confronting the Columbine effect. Boulder, CO: National Criminal Justice Reference System.
Na, C., & Paternoster, R. (2018). Prosocial identities and youth violence. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 56(1), 84–128. doi:10.1177/0022427818796552
National Bureau of Economic Research. (2019). Does child abuse cause crime? Retrieved from https://www.nber.org/digest/jan07/w12171.html
National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). Fast facts: School crime. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=49
National Center for Education Statistics (2020) Indicators of School Crime and Safety. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/crimeindicators/ind_01.asp
National Gang Center. (2016). Gang-related offenses. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgangcenter.gov/Survey-Analysis/Gang-Related-Offenses
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2017). The science of drug use: Discussion points. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/criminal-justice/drug-addiction-treatment-in-criminal-justice-system
Povedano, A., Cava, M-J., Monreal, M-C., Varela, R., & Musitu, G. (2015). Victimization, loneliness, overt and relational violence at the school form a gender perspective. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 15(1), 44-51. doi:10.1016/j.ijchp.2014.09.001
Rich, S. L., Wilson, J. K., &
Robertson, A. A. (2019). The impact of abuse trauma on alcohol and drug use: A
study of high-risk incarcerated girls. Journal
Child Adolescent Substance Abuse, 25(3), 194–205. doi:10.1080
Sedler, M. (2015). Communication PLUS. http://www.michaelsedler.com/
Steffgen, G., Recchia, S., & Viechtbauer, W. (2013). The link between school climate and violence in school: A meta-analytic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18(2), 300–309. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2012.12.001
Shandwick, W., & Tate, P. (2013). Civility in America 2013: Incivility has reached crisis levels. KRC Research. Retrieved from https://www.webershandwick.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Civility_in_America_2013_Exec_Summary.pdf
Taylor, J. A. (2019). Bruised apples: Violence against women in the education sector. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 76(1). doi:10.1136/oemed-2018-105426
Trueman, C. N. (2015; updated 2019, February 15). Who commits crime? The History Learning Site. Retrieved from http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/sociology/crime-and-deviance/who-commits-crime/
Uhlich Children’s Home. (2013). The Uhlich report card. www.uhlich.org
Warburton, W. A., & Anderson, C. A. (2015). Aggression, social psychology of. Science Direct, 2015, 373–380. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.24002-6
Wood, A. (2016). Cruel and unusual punishment: Confining juveniles with adults after Graham and Miller. Emory Law Journal, 61, 1445–1490. Retrieved from http://law.emory.edu/elj/content/volume-61/issue-6/comments/cruel-and-unusual-punishment.html
Youth.gov. (2016). Risk factors. Retrieved from http://youth.gov/youth-topics/youth-mental-health/risk-and-protective-factors-youth
Zhang, A., Musu-Gillette, L., & Oudekerk, B. A. (2016). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2015. National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2016/2016079.pdf
Course content is updated every three years. Due to this update timeline, some URL links may no longer be active or may have changed. Please type the title of the organization into the command line of any Internet browser search window and you will be able to find whether the URL link is still active or any new link to the corresponding organization's web home page.